INFLUENCE OF INSTRUCTIONAL SIMULATION STRATEGY ON STUDENTS ACHIEVEMENT IN COMPUTER STUDIES
The study examined the influence of instructional simulation strategy on students’ achievement in computer studies in secondary schools in Ezinihite Mbaise Local Government Area of Imo State. The general purpose of the study were to: find out the Influence of instructional simulation strategy on achievement scores of students in Computer studies in senior secondary schools in Ezinihite Mbaise Local Government area of Imo State, determine the Influence of instructional simulation strategy on the mean achievement scores of male and females on Computer studies in senior secondary schools in Ezinihite Mbaise Local Government area of Imo State, and to ascertain instruction interaction Influence of gender and method on students mean achievement scores in Computer studies in senior secondary schools in Ezinihite Mbaise Local Government area of Imo State. The study was conducted in Fifteen (15) senior secondary schools in Ezinihite Mbaise Local government area of Imo State. Three research questions and three hypotheses are designed for the study. The research design used for the study is a quasi-experimental design. Fifteen (15) senior secondary schools were stratified into male and female secondary schools using simple random sampling method. 87 students were selected from the stratified secondary schools by intact classes. Instrument used for data collection are (i) Computer studies Achievement Test (BSAT) developed by the researcher. Research questions are analyzed using an adjusted mean and standard deviation whereas hypotheses are tested using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). The result of the study indicates that instructional simulation package method in the teaching and learning Computer studies has a great positive impact on students’ Computer studies achievement. It is against this backdrop that the study recommended that schools should have simulation machines which will help to improve students learning, teachers should be trained on various new ways of teaching in the class instead of still adopting old method of teaching and that there should be constant power supply in schools so as to help in powering the few available simulation machines.
Background to the Study Computer scienceis the scientific and practical approach to computation and its applications. It is the systematic study of the feasibility, structure, expression, and mechanization of the methodical procedures (or algorithms) that underlie the acquisition, representation, processing, storage, communication of, and access to information. An alternate, more succinct definition of computer science is the study of automating algorithmic processes that scale. A computer scientist specializes in the theory of computation and the design of computational systems.
Its fields can be divided into a variety of theoretical and practical disciplines. Some fields, such as computational complexity theory (which explores the fundamental properties of computational and intractable problems), are highly abstract, while fields such as computer graphics emphasize real-world visual applications. Still other fields focus on challenges in implementing computation. For example, programming language theory considers various approaches to the description of computation, while the study of computer programming itself investigates various aspects of the use of programming language and complex systems. Human–computer interaction considers the challenges in making computers and computations useful, usable, and universally accessible to humans.
Computer Science is the systematic study of the feasibility, structure, expression, and mechanization of the methodical processes (or algorithms) that underlie the acquisition, representation, processing, storage, communication of, and access to information, whether such information is encoded in bits and bytes in a computer memory or transcribed in genes and protein structures in a human cell. It is a machine which can hold vast qualities of information and accurately stores information for future use. Kremer (2008) defined computer as electronic machine that operate with remarkable speed and reliability. A micro processor “brain” and electronic memory work together to enable the computer process data. Why was the computer invented should be the next question that comes to mind. Computers were invented to solve many mathematical problems in the early stage. But today, computers have gone beyond that and there is hardly any area of life where computer cannot be applied. In a rapidly changing world, basic education is essential for an individual to be able to access and apply information. Such ability must include the adequate use of computer. The Economic Commission for Africa has indicated that the ability to use computer in accessing information is no longer a luxury, but a necessity for development. Unfortunately, many developing countries especially in Africa, are still low in computer application and use (Aduwa, 2005).
Evoh (2007) emphasized that secondary school or secondary education is essential of the creation of effective human capital in any country. The need for the conclusion of computer science in the education curriculum of the Nigerian secondary schools cannot be overemphasized. In this technology-driven age, every one requires ICT competence to survive (Adom & Anie 2006). This calls for early acquisition of computer skills by students.
Oduroye (2002) emphasized the increase in demand for computer literacy in Nigeria. This is because; employees realize that computer and other ICT facilities can enhance efficiency, on the other hand, employees have also realized that computers can be a threat to their jobs, and the only way to enhance job security is to become computer literacy. Teaching and learning these skills is a concern among professionals.
Computer application and use will prove beneficial in improving Nigeria’s educational system and giving students a better education, also, skilled computer professionals who will be well equipped to solve ICT problems in Nigeria and other parts of the world (Goshit, 2006). There are development in the Nigeria education sector, which indicates some level of computer application in the secondary schools. The federal Government of Nigeria in the national policy on Education (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2004) recognize the prominent role of computers in the morden world, and has integrated computer studies and science into education in Nigeria. To actualize this goal, the document states that government will provide basic infrastructure and training of the primary school. At the junior secondary schools. It is also the intention of government to provide necessary infrastructure and training for the integration of computer science in the secondary schools system. It should be noted that 2004 was not the first attempt the Nigerian government made to introduce computer education in schools. In 1988, the Nigerian government education enacted a policy on computer education. The plan was to establish pilot schools and diffuse computer science innovation first to all secondary schools, and then to primary schools.
Unfortunately, the project did not really takeoff beyond the distribution and installation of personal computers (Okebukola, 1997). Aduwa and Iyamu (2005), concluded that the computer is not part of classroom technology in more than 90 percent of Nigeria public schools. Despite the importance of computer in our education system and nation in general, many factors however has hindered the growth and adoption of computer science in Nigeria secondary schools. Such factors range from lack of interest in computer studies in the part of the students to lack of dedication in the part of the teachers.
The task we have today in a developing country like ours (Nigeria) is to find a way of tackling the present factors that hinder the teaching of computer science. For an effective teaching and learning as well as improving students’ academic performance in Computer studies in school, the teacher needs to use different methods and techniques in teaching. The problem of this nature can only be solved by the use of simulation. In line with the above, Chibuzor (2014) opined teachers need to adopt a veritable teaching method for effective teaching in the class. One of such methods is simulation method.
Simulation method is a type of reality (system or environment) but which also includes instructional elements that help a learner to; explore, navigate or obtain more information about that system or environment that cannot generally be acquired from mere experimentation. Instructional simulations are typically goal oriented and focus learners on specific facts, concepts, or applications of the system or environment. Today, most universities make lifelong learning possible by offering a virtual learning environment (VLE). Not only can users access learning at different times in their lives, but they can also immerse themselves in learning without physically moving to a learning facility, or interact face to face with an instructor in real time.
Simulations are tools that facilitate learning through representation and practice in a repeatable, focused environment (Aldrich, 2004). According to Goldsin (2011), simulation helps to identify and understand factors which control the system and/or to predict the future behaviour of the system. Simulation programmes can be applied to Computer studies by providing real life settings for the application of games, computer programmes that encourage students to become active participants in Computer studies classroom. Simulation can be inferior substitute, imitating an original or a dippy of not real behaviours.
Simulation in teaching and learning of Computer studies helps understanding of abstract and difficult concepts by allowing the students to experiment on the variables that form the concept. Computer simulation helps students to develop their own understanding of Computer studies concepts. It also helps the students to be independent problem solvers.
Statement of the Problem
Low achievements in Computer studies generally among secondary school students is bad. This is when viewed from the perspective of their importance in technological development of the nation, especially a country considered to be underdeveloped like Nigeria. The greater worry is even the observation that secondary school students are under-achieving and that the use of classroom teaching method delivery is to blame. Computer studies educators believe that achievement of students at their full potentials could be a function of appropriate lesson delivery techniques of the teachers among others.
The present research is therefore poised to investigate the Influence s of incorporating simulation and analogies drawn into Computer studies teaching and learning among secondary school students.
Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of the study is to investigate the influence of instructional simulation method on students’ achievement in Computer studies in secondary schools in Ezinihitte Mbaise Local government area of Imo State..
Specifically, the study sought to:
1. Find out the Influence of instructional simulation strategy on achievement scores of students in Computer studies in senior secondary schools in Ezinihitte Mbaise Local Government area of Imo State.
2. Determine the Influence of instructional simulation strategy on the mean achievement scores of male and females on Computer studies in senior secondary schools in Ezinihitte Mbaise Local Government area of Imo State.
3. Ascertain instruction interaction influence s of gender and method on students mean achievement scores in Computer studies in senior secondary schools in Ezinihitte Mbaise Local Government Area of Imo State.
Significance of the Study
The following groups of people are expected to benefit directly from the study: secondary school students, Computer studies teachers, curriculum planner, and other people who may wish to carry out further research in this area. Others include educational administrators.
The findings/result of this study will be of great importance to the students. This is because, the students will know the importance of this new method of teaching in improving their competence and knowledge in Computer studies subjects. They will also learn to spend quality time in studied even while enjoying Computer studies drama. By so doing, the students will also learn to generate their knowledge of Computer studies .
The findings of the study will also be of great importance to the curriculum planners. This is because from the study they will know better ways of planning Computer studies curriculum to incorporate simulation as part of teaching and learning of Computer studies . The government or educational administrators will also benefit from the result of this study. This is because they will be motivated to invest more Computer studies education. From the result of the study, Government, Ministry of education and other non-governmental can create an agency that will encourage research the use of simulation in teaching and learning in schools.
Finally, the result of this study will be of great importance to researchers and teachers’ who may wish to carry out further research in this area. This is because this study will act as a compass that will help them to navigate.
Scope of the study
The study focused on the Influence s of using simulation method in teaching and learning of Computer studies in Senior Secondary Schools in Ezinihitte Mbaise Local Government area of Imo State.
The following research questions were formulated to guide the study
1. What are the Influence of instructional simulation strategy on achievement scores of students in Computer studies in senior secondary schools in Ezinihitte Mbaise Local Government area of Imo State?
2. What are the Influence s of instructional simulation strategy on the mean achievement scores of male and females on Computer studies in senior secondary schools in Ezinihitte Mbaise Local Government area of Imo State?
3. What are interaction Influence s of gender and method on students mean achievement scores in Computer studies in senior secondary schools in Ezinihitte Mbaise Local Government area of Imo State?.
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