The purpose of the study was to find out the influence of hygienic environment on the teaching and learning among primary school children in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State. To determine that basic hygiene refers to practices that help to maintain health and prevent the spread of diseases. In carrying out the study, the questionnaire method was used to determine the basic personal hygiene knowledge and practices among primary school children in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State.


Chapter One:    


Background to study

Statement of problems

Purpose of study

Research questions

Significance of study

Scope of study

Limitation of study

Chapter two:    

Literature review

Chapter Three: 

Methodology of study  

Population of the study

Sample and sampling procedure

Sampling techniques


Validation of instrument

Method of data collection 

Method of data analysis

Chapter Four    

Data analysis and discussion of results

Chapter Five     

Conclusion and Recommendations








        Basic hygiene refers to practices that help to maintain health and prevent the spread of diseases. It involves regular washing of body, washing the hands when necessary, cutting of nails, washing ones clothing, keeping the hair neat and brushing of teeth. School children are particularly vulnerable to neglect of basic personal hygiene (Enahoro and Orokj, 2006). The consequences in terms of morbidity and mortality are also more severe in them compared to adults. The increased burden of communicable diseases among school children due to poor personal hygiene practices and inadequate sanitary conditions remains concern on the public health agenda in developing countries. Poor knowledge, practice and attitudes towards personal hygiene play major roles in the high incidence of communicable diseases and therefore has negative consequences for the child’s long term overall development.

        The hands are probably the most important route for transmission of infection in the home and community, as they often have indirect contact with the mouth, nose and conjunction (Urw They also came in contact with food and water that is consumed. It has been revealed that there is a strong and consistent caused link between poor hand hygiene and gastrointestinal infection (WHO, 2002) certain respiratory infections have also been linked to poor personal hygiene practices. Good hand washing and other hygienic practices encouraged through health education has been reported to communicable diseases in school, children (Long-Shan, 2000). Understanding the level of knowledge and practices related to basic personal hygiene among school children in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State.


        Globally, the high mortality and morbidity due to communicable diseases among school age children has been attributed to their neglect of poor personal hygiene. Children need to be taught and guided by adults to be able to adopt certain behaviours as regards their health and well-being. To effectively address the issue of communicable disease among school children, parents, teachers, and other stake holders must work out modalities to take and encourage children to adopt good hygiene practice.

        However, it has been observed that little or nothing is been done to inculcate these practices among school children hence increase in the rate of contact/spread of these communicable diseases and worse mortality from these diseases. Therefore if adequate measures are put in place, communicable disease can be reduced to its barest minimum among school children.


        The purpose of this study is to ascertain the knowledge and practice of basic personal hygiene among school children in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State and to examine the relationship between poor hygiene practice and communicable diseases.


1.  Do the pupils have knowledge of environmental hygiene?

2.  Are there proper hygienic practices among pupils?

3.  Are there measures put in place to help children maintain good hygiene practice? 

4.  Does poor environmental hygiene affect pupils learning? 


        It is expected that this work will prompt the school authorities and the various parents-teachers association to collaborate to identify key areas of health needs among school children and institute appropriate health interventions. It is also expected to improve the knowledge base of classroom teachers on basic hygiene practices and the need for them to ensure adequate practice by the children.


        This research is expected to cover selected primary school in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State.


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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper

    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

    Click here to complete this article - How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)


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