INFLUENCE OF DRUG ABUSE ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS
Background to the study
Drug is a substance that due to its chemical nature affects physical, mental and emotional functioning. Lewinsohn (2007) defines a drug as any product other than food or water that affects the way people feel, think, see, and behaveDrug abuseaccording to Laver (1978) simply means the improper use of drugs to the degree that the consequences are defined as detrimental to the user and or the society The world Health Organization (WHO) (2006) defined drug abuse as a state of periodic or chronic intoxication, detrimental to the individual and the society, produced by the repeated consumption of a drug (natural or synthetic). Drug abuse is the use of drugs for purposes other than medical reasons, thus affecting the individual in a negative way socially, cognitively or physically. It can enter the body through chewing, inhaling, smoking, drinking, rubbing on the skin or injection. Drug abuse amongst the global youth population has become a serious problem affecting everyone. Addiction leads many people, young people prominent amongst them, into downward spiral of hopelessness that in some cases ends fatal. They range from glue-sniffing street children and teenage ecstasy users, to hard core heroin and cocaine addicts
(Paschall, 2005). Drug abuse is responsible for lost wages, destruction of property in schools, soaring health care costs and broken families. It is a problem which affects us all as parents, children, teachers, government officials, taxpayers and workers.
Students, especially those in secondary school tend to see the drug user as one who is tough, bold and strong. Many youngsters have been known to use drugs at the instance of peers, elders or siblings. Students who usually feel inadequate have been known to use drugs to achieve social acceptance. Esen (1979) stated that Nigerian secondary school students under the influence of Indian hemp shed all inhibitions and produce behaviour that is inconsistent with school discipline. He went further to observe that the increasing incidence of drug abuse among secondary school students is a contributory factor in the ugly confrontation between school administration and students.
Idowu (1987) found that students smoke and use drugs at the instance of friends/peers, parents and television/radio advertisements. Oladele, (1989); Okorodudu and Okorodudu (2004); and Enakpoya (2009) in their studies showed that adolescents were very susceptible to the influence of their peers. Osikoya and Ali (2006) asserted that socially, a drug abuser is always pre-occupied with how to obtain drug of choice and crave for the substance. Kobiowu (2006) study revealed that the academic pursuit of those students who engages in drug misuse is not unduly jeopardized, and that the abusers do not socialize extraordinarily, contrary to seemingly popular expectation.
The abuse of drug has series adverse consequences in our homes, schools, work places and communities and so the national institute of Drug Abuse (NDA) set out their effort to help the public understand the causes of drug abuse and how to prevent its problems. They also identify effective interventions with younger population to help prevent risk behavior before drug abuse occurs. Research founded by (NDA) and other federal research organizations such as the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) (2009), shows that early intervention can prevent many adolescent risk behaviors. With regard to this research work, we believe that focusing more broadly on secondary school in Enugu north of Enugu state will help to find out the possible ways to prevent the influence of drug abuse on studentacademic performance.
The use of hard drugs has affect both families, school and the societies as a whole, but precisely is it influence on the academic performance of secondary school students. Academic performance is the outcome of education, the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their educational goals. Academic performance is commonly measured by examination or continuous assessment but there is no general agreement on how it is best tested or which aspects are most important, procedural knowledge such as skills or declarative knowledge such as facts (Annie, Howard, Mildred 1996). The academic performance of students is greatly affected by drug abuse and addiction. Hence Cole man (2010) concludes that drug abuse and addiction is detrimental to the socio-economic and intellectual advancement of the nation.
Drug abuse can also affects the brain, resulting in a major decline in its functions, whereby it can further affect a student’s concentration and thus interest in school activities which may leads to increased absenteeism and drop outs. Most psychoactive drugs affect the decision making process of students, their creative thinking and the development of necessary life and social skills. Drugs abuse also interferes with an individual’s awareness of their unique potential and thus their interest in their career development (Louw, 2001). This gradually leads to social, emotional and physical problems and new feelings of guilt, despair and helplessness. Thus, resulting to poor performance in their academics
Therefore this research work is motivated by the degree of the influence of drug abuse on the academic performance of secondary school students.
Statement of the Problem
Drug abuse is a pandemic problem and it increases in an alarming rate in Nigeria today. About two decades ago, incidence of drug trafficking in Nigeria was low and abuse was minimal, but today drug abuse has destroyed and killed many people in the society. The height of drug trafficking in Nigeria was witnessed in 1985 under the military regime. During this period It was mostly the university undergraduates that were caught and the first to be executed for drug offences under the “special tribunal (miscellaneous offences) Degree NO 20 1984.
Nevertheless, the usage of drug either by secondary school students or other members of the larger society is all its ramifications appears to be a social problem. The Nigerian National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA) has stated that drug abuse is a major problem in schools, colleges and universities in Nigeria. This is a critical problem which affects the society as it hampers the academic performance of students at the secondary level who are expected to develop and become leaders of tomorrow. The secondary school students who are the youth and the future hope of the society have created a social problem of engaging in hard drug that can be destruction to their academic endeavors.
In support of the above assertion; drug abuse may entails a lot of social problems ranging from lateness to classes, family neglect, deviance behaviors involvement in crime etc (Earl 2000).
To the society as a whole crime, promiscuity, armed robbery and other vice are all linked to drug abuse. Despite the overwhelming intervention strategies by
the Government, religious organizations, non-state actors and many other keen stakeholders to curb the problem of drug and substance abuse especially among the students and the youth entirely , the number of school going youth being suck into drug abuse seems to be escalating day by day. The government for instance has placed education at the centre of the social pillar of vision 2030. To show its commitment it has highly subsidized secondary school education thus boosting access and retention rates in the system, all these intervention strategies have had huge cost implications on the taxpayer including the opportunity cost.
But drug abuse threatens and tends to derail these noble strides by de-motivating the students in learning and subsequently ruining these school going children that the government intends to rely on in driving the economy to the next level. Drugs abuse menace should therefore be given the attention it deserves if the intentions of this hefty investment in education are to bear fruits. For the government and the society to get positive ought come from the education of secondary school students, there is the need to investigate into the influence of drug abuse among secondary school students in other to offer solution to remedy it
Therefore this study is motivated by the alarming influence of drug abuse on the academic performance of secondary school student students.
Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this research is to find out how drug abuse influenced the academic performance of secondary school student in Enugu north local government of Enugu state.
· Identify the influence of drug abuse on the academic performance of secondary school students
· determine the reasons why drugs are been abused by secondary school students
· Find out measures for eradicating the problem of drug among secondary school students.
Scope of study
The scope of this study is limited towards finding the influence of drug abuse on the academic performance of secondary school students in Enugu North local Government Area of Enugu state.
Significant of the study
This research work is important to the student, the government, the health sector and the public. This study is very important to the student because it the student with the information of the different kinds of drug that are been abuse, solutions to the problem of drug abuse on the student. It will help student to know the influence of alcohol which is the most common abuse substance in secondary. The result of this study will also be included in counseling education which will help everyone involved, from the student abusing drug to family and friends. It is important that people who abuse substances are aware of how drug can affect their minds, bodies relationships, and functioning. This awareness can help them realize the potential damage that has already occurred.
This research work will help the government to understand the influence of drug abuse on the student. The government which is the agency of a state at all level will now take the responsibility of making sure through the ministry of education and it agencies that the educational curriculum encompasses the teaching on the prevention of drug abuse. It will also alert the government through it agency to equip secondary school teachers and principals to combats drug abuse by their student. This can be done, by expulsion or suspension of any student been cut in such act.
The study will go a long way in reducing the numerous health problems encountered as a result of misuse of drugs or the intake of hard drugs. This study will also help young researchers or writers to solve some problems of drug abuse. There by ensuring good health of the university undergraduates or youths in general and social harmony in the society.
The research of the study should help in creating awareness to the public on the general effect of drug abuse on their health most especially the secondary school student who is coming up. It will make the youths to realize that excessive or even small intake of this item (drugs) has inhibitory effects on their brain. It will also assist in enlightening the community on how to enhance anti-drug laws in the society
The following research questions will guide the study.
· What are the influences of drug abuse on academic performance of secondary school students?
· What are the major reasons why secondary school student’s engage in drug abuse?
· What are the measures that can eradicate drug abuse among secondary school students?.