CRIMINAL BEHAVIORS AMONG STUDENTS OF PRIVATE UNIVERSITIES

CRIMINAL BEHAVIORS AMONG STUDENTS OF PRIVATE UNIVERSITIES  

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY  

Crime is an inevitable phenomenon in human existence because human beings are hedonistic in nature (pleasure-seeking in nature). The rate at which teenagers and youths in society commit a crime cannot be overemphasized. Crime in schools is one of the most disturbing societal problems in society today. The crime does not affect only the offender, victim, or witness but it affectssocietal growthand stability at large. 

A crime is an act committed or omitted, in violation of public law, either forbidding or commanding it; a breach or violation of some public right or duty due to the whole community, considered as a community. In its social aggregate capacity, as distinguished from a civil injury. (Wilkins v. u. s).

Crime is again defined as an intentional act or omission in violation of criminal law, statutory, case law committed without defense or justification, and sanctioned by the state as a felony or misdemeanor. (Paul Tappan 1947)

Crime and criminal behavior are hard to define. This is due to the varying norms and ideologies in different societies, what is seen as a crime in a society will be part of the norms of another. A United Nations research institute observed that:

 Crime, in the sense of a breach of legal prohibition, is a universal concept, but what actually constitutes a crime and how seriously it should be regarded, varies enormously from one society to another. Perceptions of crime are not determined by any objective indicator of the degree of injury or damage but by cultural values and power relations.

Various means have been provided to reduce thecriminal behaviorsamongst youth and various resources have been directed at developing various means of reducing criminal behaviors amongst students. Such means include payment of fine, community service, rehabilitation, juvenile prison just to mention a few. But these various means have failed in achieving the means for which they were established, they have failed in reducing crimes in society and also in reducing the high rate of recidivism in the society. The activities of students have long been subject to public concerns such as examination malpractice, physical assault, sexual assault, theft, bullying, and most times students always categorize some crimes as fewer crimes and this makes them commit some offenses as if they were normal, this includes indecent dressing, going late for lectures just to mention a few.

In order to ensure the reduction of criminal behavior in schools, there should be an effective model put in place to ensure the reduction of criminal behaviors in schools. The main focus is to continue the downward trends in the high volume crime and to intervene in the increase of recidivism and effectiveness and efficiency of the intervention in addressing the behavior of the youth and the causes of such behavior and their needs.

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

The history of criminal behavior in institutions has been seen to have grown over the years. This shows that this area of criminal acts among students has been neglected in that the same solution has been applied to the increase of these criminal behaviors in students and this has not yielded any positive result over the years.

Some of the problems include;

•           Increase in crime rate in the institutions

•           There is no standard measure of tackling criminal behaviors among students

•           Increase in victimization among students

•           Rise of tension among students

 1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The broad objective of the study is to evaluate the criminal behaviors of students of private institutions and to examine measures of reducing criminal behavior. Specific objectives include:

•      To identify the criminal behaviors of students in both Afe Babalola University and

Bowen university

•      To compare the trend of criminal activities in both institutions

•      To compare both institutions students disciplinary committee with the intent of knowing how effective they have been in reducing crime

•      To analyze the success that has been achieved in reducing the crime

•      To identify the challenges faced in reducing criminal behavior 

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

•      How does criminal behavior affect the institution?

•      Can criminal behaviors in private universities be eradicated completely?

•      To what extent has the human and material resources directed at reducing crime in institutions helped in reducing crime effectively?

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

This study shall contribute to the already existing body of study of criminal behavior and serve as a reference for further researches on this study. It will contribute to the already existing measures of reducing criminal behaviors in private universities in order to prevent such actions from affecting the offenders, victims, and the institution and to also prevent future recidivism. It will contribute to the efforts directed at curbing criminal behaviors in the private institutions to ensure it does not affect society at large. It will also contribute to building an individual understanding of crime and criminal behavior, why crime and ways of relating to such behavior. This study will basically provide information to private institutions (both students and the authority) and the public institutions as well as the government on the best way to tackle criminal behavior among students in society.

1.6 SCOPE OF STUDY

This study is designed to study criminal behaviors among students of private universities and how such behaviors affect the victims and the institution at large, also the study will analyze and compare the way criminal behaviors are been reduced in the institutions. Specifically, this work shall involve studying criminal behaviors of students in private universities through focusing on the criminal behaviors of students in Afe Babalola University Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State, and Bowen University Iwo Osun State to know why they commit a crime and to study their various measures of reducing such criminal behaviors. 

1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS

During the course of this study, some words would be put to use. Below are some words and their definitions;

Crime: This can be defined as an act of commission or omission which is prohibited by criminal law punishable by fine or imprisonment. Crime is the commission or omission; failure to do ore act of doing any act which is prohibited or required by the criminal code of an organization, institution, or state. 

Recidivism: The act of a person repeating an undesirable behavior after he or she has either experienced negative consequences of that behavior or has been treated or trained to extinguish that behavior.

Victim: An aggrieved or disadvantaged party in a crime. A person who suffers any injury, loss, or damage as a result of a voluntary undertaking. 

Delinquent: An act of misconduct by a person under 18.

Deviance: Actions that violate formal and informal cultural norms.

Violence: Action intended to cause destruction, pain, or suffering.

Behavior: The way a person acts. The way of life of a person or group of people.

Criminal: A person who is guilty of a crime, notably breaking the law.

1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY

This research work shall comprise five chapters. Chapter one will be the introduction which deals with the background to the study, statement of research problems, research questions, research hypothesis, objectives of the study, significance of the study, operationalization of concepts, and organization of the study; as dully presented here in this section. Chapter two covers the literature review which consists of the conceptual clarification and theoretical framework. Chapter three is for the research methodology; Chapter four shall be a presentation, analysis, and interpretation of the primary data gathered from the fieldwork. Finally, chapter five shall conclude the research work by providing a research summary, findings, conclusion, and recommendation of the study.

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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper


    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

    Click here to complete this article - How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

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