1.0   Introduction

1.1   Background Information

Education according to Longman Dictionary is defined as “the teaching or the training of mind and character”. Education is the cynosure of ever society’s socio-culture development. The viability of any sector of every nation’s growth depends on the educational base.

        Training institutions education in Nigeria has remained the bedrock of the country’s educational sector though the aim and objective of education have changed with the development needs of the central government, the fact still remain that education in polytechnics and colleges of education level makes the greatest impact in the life of the nation.   

Education is also one of the vital instruments in development. According to the national policy on education (1997) “education in Nigeria is an instrument per excellent” for effecting national development. What Nigeria needs in 21st century to turn her economy around is not extended polytechnics and colleges of education but a basic education that will ensure that every Nigeria youth graduate is sufficiently equipped with knowledge, skills and experience required for work, whether polytechnics or colleges of education        bound or not (Anyabelu, 2000).

        It is need that has call for government commitment to the case of higher education since the colonial time, till date. The quantum and quality ifeducational facilities, indicate the level of development of any nation. It is therefore expected that the provision and management of these facilities will assume prominence as well as constitute a challenge in nation particularly a developing country like Nigeria.

        In Nigeria, enough emphasis has not been placed on physical planning, input in the sitting, distributing and development of public facilities even though it is the major determinant of the overall level of efficiency of the service delivery instead greater emphasis has been placed on financial administrative and political considerations.

        The assessment of the efficiency of service delivery can be used to determine the overall effect of prevailing practice in facilitates provision. The planning and provision of educational facilities needs to be based on sound practical planning inputs (standards, principles and concepts) as they relate to unique urban situation. This is to avoid the problems of inadequacy, poor location, wastage etc. Variables such as population threshold, distance as well as social economic variables are used in determine the distribution and management of the services. The provision and management of these facilities will assume prominence as well as constitute a challenge in any nation particularly in a developing country like ours.

        Polytechnics and colleges of education in Kogi State has a substantial level of investment in educational facilities, but there is indication of inadequate poor standard. There are indications of problems which include the shortage of qualified lecturers personnel, inadequacy of academic facilities (such as lecture halls, laboratories and social hall) which affect  the productivity of education in Kogi State Polytechnic, Federal Polytechnic Idah, College of Education Okene and Kogi State College of Education Ankpa.

        The study involves the analysis of the vocational attributes and disteeribution characteristics of these educational facilities. The extent to which it affect the quality of service provided using population size, location standard etc. As indicated. The impact of physical planning inputs on the outcome of investment in the educational facilities provision need to be examined.

1.2   Statement of the Problem

        The statement of the problem of this research is inadequate of educational facilities, utilities and services coupled with inconvenience caused to students in their various educational activities.    

        There is inadequate teaching and learning facilities in most tertiary institutions in Kogi State e.g. lecture halls, textbooks, toilet, water supply etc. Coupled with inadequate fund to improve the facilities thereby making the environment unconducive for learning.


The aim of this study is to appraise the existing educational facilities in Kogi State Polytechnic, Lokoja, Federal Polytechnic Idah, Kogi State Colleege of Education Ankpa and The federal Colleege of Education Okene in Kogi State  with a view of making appropriate recommendation that will enhance performance.


i.            To identify the causes and impact of the location distribution pattern in the study area.

ii.           To recommend measures to mitigate these challenges.

iii.         To identify the implication of the impacts on these educational facilities.

iv.         To review relevant literature on the concept, principle and standard of the provision of educational infrastructure in Kogi State.

Research Questions

i.            What is the number of educational facilities available in these selected tertiary institutions in Kogi State?

ii.           What is the population of the students and the number of staff in these selected tertiary institution?

iii.         What are the facilities lacking in these selected tertiary institutions?

1.5   Significance of the Study

        The research intends to study the existing educational facilities in selected tertiary institutions in Kogi State and to see whether the facilities enhance effective performance.

        To get current data that will enhance planning for educational facilities in various study areas both for the present and for future uses so as to enhance the educational standard of the people.

        To access the location standard of the schools and their impacts to the neighbourhood.

1.6   Scope and Limitations

        Education studies is a wide field of study, this work therefore covers on the existing polytechnic and colleges of education in Kogi State. The number of institutions and the state of the existing infrastructure available in the institutions with the application of planning principles and standard and making appropriate recommendations that will enhance performance.

1.7   Definition of Terms

Education: Education, according to Longman Dictionary is defined as “the teaching or the training of mind and character”. It is also a process of teaching, training and learning, especially in schools to improve knowledge and development skills.

Facilities: A physical property developed constructed with objective of reaping economic social welfare or benefits. Nigeria institute of estate surveyors and valuers NIESV (1997).

        They could be classified as: -

·        Educational: Schools, institutions.

·        Recreational: Stadium, parks, plays grounds.

·        Health: Hospitals, clinics, dispensaries.

·        Electricity

·        Road network

Infrastructure: For social and economic sectors as well as for planning purpose, the concept of infrastructure according to Okotie (1998) simply means “all that is necessary to sustain the population”. They are structure or entities located within a settlement which provide services and benefits that promote environmental quantity and quality of life infrastructure constitute the framework used for delivery the various public services, they are classified into two broad groups by social scientist.

i.            Social or community infrastructure: In this category we have infrastructure that relate to the welfare of the people. They provide services which are equally available to all. Examples, schools, hospitals, markets etc infrastructure is used generally to refers to facilities, utilities and services.

ii.           Physical infrastructure: These includes the real estate based type example, classroom, play ground etc.

Standard: This is a set of yardstick establishment for measuring the excellence of quality in element of communities’ make-up, standards are not absolute but more in the nature of guide or criteria to be following under average circumstance, (Agboola, 2004).


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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper

    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

    Click here to complete this article - How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)


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