1.1 Background Information
Education according to Longman Dictionary is defined as “the teaching or the training of mind and character”. Education is the cynosure of ever society’s socio-culture development. The viability of any sector of every nation’s growth depends on the educational base.
Training institutions education in Nigeria has remained the bedrock of the country’s educational sector though the aim and objective of education have changed with the development needs of the central government, the fact still remain that education in polytechnics and colleges of education level makes the greatest impact in the life of the nation.
Education is also one of the vital instruments in development. According to the national policy on education (1997) “education in Nigeria is an instrument per excellent” for effecting national development. What Nigeria needs in 21st century to turn her economy around is not extended polytechnics and colleges of education but a basic education that will ensure that every Nigeria youth graduate is sufficiently equipped with knowledge, skills and experience required for work, whether polytechnics or colleges of education bound or not (Anyabelu, 2000).
It is need that has call for government commitment to the case of higher education since the colonial time, till date. The quantum and quality ifeducational facilities, indicate the level of development of any nation. It is therefore expected that the provision and management of these facilities will assume prominence as well as constitute a challenge in nation particularly a developing country like Nigeria.
In Nigeria, enough emphasis has not been placed on physical planning, input in the sitting, distributing and development of public facilities even though it is the major determinant of the overall level of efficiency of the service delivery instead greater emphasis has been placed on financial administrative and political considerations.
The assessment of the efficiency of service delivery can be used to determine the overall effect of prevailing practice in facilitates provision. The planning and provision of educational facilities needs to be based on sound practical planning inputs (standards, principles and concepts) as they relate to unique urban situation. This is to avoid the problems of inadequacy, poor location, wastage etc. Variables such as population threshold, distance as well as social economic variables are used in determine the distribution and management of the services. The provision and management of these facilities will assume prominence as well as constitute a challenge in any nation particularly in a developing country like ours.
Polytechnics and colleges of education in Kogi State has a substantial level of investment in educational facilities, but there is indication of inadequate poor standard. There are indications of problems which include the shortage of qualified lecturers personnel, inadequacy of academic facilities (such as lecture halls, laboratories and social hall) which affect the productivity of education in Kogi State Polytechnic, Federal Polytechnic Idah, College of Education Okene and Kogi State College of Education Ankpa.
The study involves the analysis of the vocational attributes and disteeribution characteristics of these educational facilities. The extent to which it affect the quality of service provided using population size, location standard etc. As indicated. The impact of physical planning inputs on the outcome of investment in the educational facilities provision need to be examined.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The statement of the problem of this research is inadequate of educational facilities, utilities and services coupled with inconvenience caused to students in their various educational activities.
There is inadequate teaching and learning facilities in most tertiary institutions in Kogi State e.g. lecture halls, textbooks, toilet, water supply etc. Coupled with inadequate fund to improve the facilities thereby making the environment unconducive for learning.
The aim of this study is to appraise the existing educational facilities in Kogi State Polytechnic, Lokoja, Federal Polytechnic Idah, Kogi State Colleege of Education Ankpa and The federal Colleege of Education Okene in Kogi State with a view of making appropriate recommendation that will enhance performance.
i. To identify the causes and impact of the location distribution pattern in the study area.
ii. To recommend measures to mitigate these challenges.
iii. To identify the implication of the impacts on these educational facilities.
iv. To review relevant literature on the concept, principle and standard of the provision of educational infrastructure in Kogi State.
i. What is the number of educational facilities available in these selected tertiary institutions in Kogi State?
ii. What is the population of the students and the number of staff in these selected tertiary institution?
iii. What are the facilities lacking in these selected tertiary institutions?
1.5 Significance of the Study
The research intends to study the existing educational facilities in selected tertiary institutions in Kogi State and to see whether the facilities enhance effective performance.
To get current data that will enhance planning for educational facilities in various study areas both for the present and for future uses so as to enhance the educational standard of the people.
To access the location standard of the schools and their impacts to the neighbourhood.
1.6 Scope and Limitations
Education studies is a wide field of study, this work therefore covers on the existing polytechnic and colleges of education in Kogi State. The number of institutions and the state of the existing infrastructure available in the institutions with the application of planning principles and standard and making appropriate recommendations that will enhance performance.
1.7 Definition of Terms
Education: Education, according to Longman Dictionary is defined as “the teaching or the training of mind and character”. It is also a process of teaching, training and learning, especially in schools to improve knowledge and development skills.
Facilities: A physical property developed constructed with objective of reaping economic social welfare or benefits. Nigeria institute of estate surveyors and valuers NIESV (1997).
They could be classified as: -
· Educational: Schools, institutions.
· Recreational: Stadium, parks, plays grounds.
· Health: Hospitals, clinics, dispensaries.
· Road network
Infrastructure: For social and economic sectors as well as for planning purpose, the concept of infrastructure according to Okotie (1998) simply means “all that is necessary to sustain the population”. They are structure or entities located within a settlement which provide services and benefits that promote environmental quantity and quality of life infrastructure constitute the framework used for delivery the various public services, they are classified into two broad groups by social scientist.
i. Social or community infrastructure: In this category we have infrastructure that relate to the welfare of the people. They provide services which are equally available to all. Examples, schools, hospitals, markets etc infrastructure is used generally to refers to facilities, utilities and services.
ii. Physical infrastructure: These includes the real estate based type example, classroom, play ground etc.
Standard: This is a set of yardstick establishment for measuring the excellence of quality in element of communities’ make-up, standards are not absolute but more in the nature of guide or criteria to be following under average circumstance, (Agboola, 2004)..