Nigeria is aware of the need to become self-reliant technologically and scientifically. Therefore attention has to be given to Mathematics as the language of science. National

Policy onEducation(NPE) (2006 p.1) states that “there will be equal educational opportunities for all’’. It was discovered that, the female’s gender that forms about 48% of the Nigerian population census (2006) was not found in the school. This was due to societal pressure on females such as early marriage, distribution of girls from schooling by other factors.

Bandele (1988) revealed that “the differences in students’ performance are always attributed to environmental or process variables. This is in line with section 18 sub sections 1 and 3 of theNigerian constitutionwhich guarantees education as a right for every Nigerian child”. In realization of the importance of mathematics, science and technology, the NPE stipulates that

“Education will be used as an instrument for scientific, technological and cultural development of the society’’.

Oladunni (1995) opined that “there was no significant difference between achievement of males and females in mathematics”. Mukhtar and Iliyasu (2006) were on the view that “in most mathematics and mathematics related fields, there tend to be more male than females. For instance when we look at the ancient mathematicians including; Pythagoras, Thales, Euclid and Pascal, all of them were men’’. However, one

begins to ask on the possible causes of such imbalance between male and female could it be female’s brain are weaker than those of males?

   According to Blasser (1991) “girls and boys start equal in mathematics and science performance in school, they appear to do equally well in both subject in elementary schools. Then some girls begin to lose interest in mathematics and science around the age of twelve. These girls then drop out from Mathematics Classes often forever closing the door on many career opportunities’’. This show that female’s student performed less than their counterparts, males. However student’s performance is not dependent on sex difference and this leads to continue verification and study on males and females performance in Mathematics. Hence, the current study will investigate the comparative study between males and females performance in senior secondary school mathematics.  



  Sex disparities in mathematics education, is like geographical disparities have historically been prevalent in almost all societies and in different aspect of learning. Female students fell that they cannot compute with their counterpart male students in learning Mathematics. However, the gender differences in Mathematics lead to our females to become backward unsuccessful personals in the area of science and technology. Many researches were conducted in the field of gender issues on mathematics and still reported that there is a gap between males and females. There is need to encourage females not to fear mathematics in their life and make it simple for them to become self-reliant, self-esteem, take care of their family and equated with wider knowledge in science and technology. In fact the present study was “A comparative study on males and females performance in senior secondary school mathematics; A case study of katsina metropolis’’.


  The objectives of this research are to:          

1.     Investigate differences in performance between male and female students in senior secondary schools mathematics.

2.     To find out how differences are between male and female students performance in mathematics in senior secondary schools in katsina metropolis.

3.     Ascertain the difference in academic performance of male and female students in mathematics.


  The research questions of this study are:

1.     To what extent do male and female students perform in senior secondary schools mathematics?

2.     What is the male and female student’s performance in senior secondary schools mathematics?

3.     What is the difference between male and female students performance in senior secondary schools mathematics?

4.     Did the environment really affect the teaching and learning of mathematics in senior secondary school?

5.     How the gap between their levels of performance will be reduced?


HO1: malestudents do not perform better than female students in senior secondary schools mathematics.

HO2: Female students do not perform better than male students in senior secondary schools. 

HO3: There is no difference between performance of males and females in senior secondary schools.


The education of women holds the key to all elements in which depends population control, family health, personal hygiene, nutrition receipting to innovation and educational motivation of children. Therefore, educated females in mathematics will help in upbringing their children to become significantly educated.

Educated females in mathematics will encourage other members in their family to study mathematics and other related courses in science and technology without fear. Mathematics is a commercial course especially now as era of science and technology, educated women in that fields will have an opportunity to get a better jobs, as well as chance to help their family members in all personal endeavors.

Therefore, mathematics is an indispensable tool to national development. If females are alleviated from darkness of ignorance, many people in the society will be encouraged to study mathematics and become self-reliant.

However, if females seemed to be able to fill in their quarter in the labour market, educated or knowledgeable mathematics girls will take part in the development of nation. This will encourage them to become expert and ready to teach in institutions of learning.

Finally, if females are well mathematics educated, it will help them to become self-motivated to face essentials and raising their level of education contribute significantly to development. The purpose of women education is to enable them contribute to life, become good citizens and develop selfdiscipline among others.


Although this study seems to be affecting some selected senior secondary schools in katsina metropolis. Area of comparison between male and female students performance in mathematics in senior secondary schools covered a broad range from management and financing to academic performance and population, however this research is solely concerned with the academic performance of male and female students in senior secondary school mathematics.

This research is on males and females performance in senior secondary school mathematics. Therefore, the research will cover the following secondary schools in Katsina


1.  Government girl’s secondary school, Katsina.

2.  Government college Katsina.

3.  Government day secondary school KofarYandaka.

4.  Government day secondary school KofarSauri.

5.  Government day secondary school TudunMatawalle.

The schools are selected based on the moderate and higher performance academically, and to go with perspectives of the society. Single and mixed schools are selected to compare and contrast the performance of both the male and female students in Mathematics. 


          This chapter was aimed to investigate who learn more between males and females in mathematics. It was discovered that refuses to attend school due to certain factors or problems. It shows that some scholars were on the view that females and males performed differently, while others were on the view no significant difference among males and females in learning mathematics. Various evidence has shown that male performed better than females in different aspect of learning particularly in mathematics. Therefore, there is need to encourage our females to learn mathematics more in order to help them to contribute in the development of the nation. This chapter gives the objectives, research questions and research hypotheses. The objectives of this research were: to investigate male and female students’ performance in senior secondary school mathematics and to compare male and female students’ performance in senior secondary school mathematics. Research questions were: to what extent male and female students’ perform in Mathematics, and what is their difference in senior secondary school Mathematics. 

Hypothesis: male and female students do not perform

significantly is senior secondary school mathematics and there is no difference between male and female students’ performance in senior secondary school mathematics. It been justified that many evidences have shown that, there is a gap or inbalance between male and female performances. Also, there is need to improve female to study and learn mathematics, because female have a great role to play toward the development of the nation. Also, if girls and boys are mathematically educated, the benefit will multiply within the community. Significantly, if females are mathematically educated, we could drive benefit in our families; it will help them to fill their quota in the labour market, free them from mathematics ignorance and society at large will be carried forward.


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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper

    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

    Click here to complete this article - How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)


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