There are so many indicators in the literature that examination is one of the most controversial matters in our contemporary society

            Hence due to its nature, it attracts very many critics this situation has given rise to where a part of the critics believes that examination as the last resort

            Categorically, examination is clearly knows to render very useful help in the field of education meanwhile, Stephen (1969) views that there are numerous examples in all countries of the world while are in reality and frequently in name, also, competitions designed to elimate the majority of candidates and allocate the reminder to certain know vacancies for example the civil service in secondary schools in colleges or universities. In the real fact examination is usually employed to mark either pass or fail is constantly applied to a collection of students. It collaborate the view of Stephen where he declares that history as to back up the view setting children against one another in trials and competition has always been a respectable means of inciting them to deal because examination is used to measure the academic performance of every students. With this mind, they have always strived to pass. In the same vein, it also encourages a kind of competition within a collection of students who will aim at the attainable highest mark in classes.

            Apart from the foregoing examination as still used for giving grades to the individual students. By casting our minds into past, the West Africa councils issued resulted on the basis of some grading where students where placed in  stratification one, two, three, respectively secondly the relevant practices of the Nigeria teaching institute is that students are given certificates in the ground of distinction, credit, and good classification and either of those where marked through examinations

            By the standard of the National Certificate Education, students are by custom grouped into first, second, further subdivided into upper and lower or third class degree having successful undergone a rigorous set of examination.

            Consequently, all those situations have been put together to exert influence on the child’s attitude which have always had a way of bringing about negative desire or success in any given examination with or without adequate and necessary preparations.

            However, it is good to note that examination goes beyond the four walls of the school system. Hence, Nwama (1979) observed that “in business sector, the more theoretical examinations one passes, the better the chances of advancement even of productivity does not increase. According to him, this is the social and even candidates operate.

            Examination still more, could be used as a medium for issuing licensed. A paragonised paragon by the view of Stephen is driving test and here he declared “no one so far wishes to put a limit to computing against each other in a series of proficiency test designed to unlock out all but a small earlier determined quantity of top grade performance. The authority has every desire to ensure that those who handle cars are capable of doing so with at least a minimum of efficiency. The essence of an examination before written before the issuance of driving license is just to answer that life is made safer for the majority of the populace using our highways.

            Furthermore, he believes that examination is a weapon normally used for social engineering and he puts it thus, it is used in breathing through social class barriers and quickening social mobility. Therefore, the imperative of examination because we cannot cope one form of examination of the other, there is constantly emphasized by people on the need to pass since it tells who should have a given job at the expenses of on the spot mouth (oral) test. In whichever form an examination takes, we must note that it is always competitive. Meanwhile, the outcome of any given test is not governed by a complete standard of performance but by the degree of excellence of the contestants. Also, in the civil service sectors, results are guided by the number of vacancies to be occupied. It is worthwhile to note that in the school system, every child has to write a series of tests in the secondary school. There are in the form of class terminal and session examination and to go long way to determine whether he will reach the final year class. Therefore, the next examination to be taken will be either the national examination, which is the final year class. These are respectively organized by the NECO and WAEC.   

            It is essential to place on record that success at either of this examination helps to determine the success made in the six years spent in the secondary school. So higher marks attained in any of them becomes one of the yardstick to institutions of higher learning while having to write other sets of consecutive competitive examination with the JAMB to mention but a few.


            It has become an idea from the background of this work that examination plays a very useful role in our education and society at large. It is a very rare phenomenon to see where honest examinations are conducted. However, as early as 70s examination malpractices have been reported in our education cycle. With action in mind, those who involved themselves in examination malpractice usually introduce systematic and sophisticated method in overshadowing even clever and watchful invigilators. Malpractice has been a nationwide scourge and of which Edo State is also inclusive. For this reason is made to investigate the extent it has gone in the area of the study have and why it happens mainly in secondary schools in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State.


            The purpose of the study is to examine examination malpractices among secondary schools in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State.

            Right from the early 1970s, examination malpractices have been on the increase due to the negative trend, various bodies have been seeking panacea to it.

            Meanwhile, as they tend to proffer possible solutions, they learn more and more styles of committing the crime; hence, this work is concerned specially to investigate critically some useful aspects of examination malpractices.

a.      Reasons why students cheat during examination exercise.

b.      The method used by the in cheating

c.      The extent to which the society, teachers, parents, and students involve themselves in examination malpractice.

d.      The effect of examination malpractices on students, school and the society.


            It is believed that lots of benefits will be gotten from this study. In the first place, it will mark the degree to which students, teachers and parents involved in examination malpractices.


            With a close reflection to the thought provoking questions above the following that, there is a relationship between parents and teachers level of expectation and students cheating in any given examination.

a.      Why is that poor taught students are most certainly to breach the integrity of the conduct of examination?

b.      Why does the relationship between the drive for success and breaching examination rules and regulations occur?

c.      Why is it that the students who have not equipped themselves adequately are most certain to cheat in an examination?

d.      There is a connection between students, cheating in an examination and accomplish using it as an avenue to making more money.


Malpractices: It is the action of any person usually not in conformity with laid down rules and regulations whether internal or external.

Local Government Area: A group of towns and villages delimited as a result of the Local Government Edict No 13 of 1976.

Educators: As used here implies school principals, administrators and teachers sampled.

WAEC: West African Examinations Council

NECO: National Examination Council

NABTEB: National Business and Technical Examination Board

GCE: General Certificate of Examination

Internal Examination: This is examination usually given toi students by their class teachers.


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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper

    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

    Click here to complete this article - How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)


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