Mathematics is the science of numbers and space, it is the language of the new millennium (Harbor-Peter, 2000). It is the queen of science and technology, also a tool for scientific and technological development (Agwagah and Ezeugo, 2000). No National can develop scientifically and technologically without a proper foundation in school mathematics (Okafor, 2005 in Kurumeh and Imoko, 2006). In recent years, for instance, there had been criticisms in public places, and in newspapers over the low standard of performance in mathematics in our schools’ prominent among the critics are the teachers and parents. The critics are particularly concerned with the teaching of basic mathematics in our schools. They claim that most students who have successfully completed secondary school education often failed mathematics. However, from the viewpoint of national interest, a far more serious consequence of the inability of the students to excel in mathematics successfully is in regard to scientific and technological advancement that we very much desire in the attainment of the Millennium Development Goal.

          We need many qualified doctors, engineers, agricultural scientists, economists, computer programmers, and mathematics teachers. All these professionals require basic courses in mathematics up to an advanced level before they can specialize in these professions.

          According to Oxford advanced learning dictionary; truancy is an act or condition of being absent without permission.

          Merriam (2012) says truancy as an act or instance of playing truant: the state of being truancy (the California legislature view truancy in very precise language). In summary, it states that a student missing more than 30 minutes of instruction without an excuse three times during the school year must be classified as truancy.

          Sherilyn (2011) views that three are various reasons for truancy and this has been one of the major problems in Nigeria and it is negatively affecting the future of the pupils. Absence rates have reached as high as 30 percent in some schools and it is harder for the teachers to do something about this. And this affects not only the pupils but their families as well. Consequences are various as well if they miss too many classes they will not be able to congratulate on time and they will fall behind their classmates and this will affect not only their self-esteem but various other things. All this can improve if teachers together with parents make a good plan to interest pupils who are skipping classes to get back to school.

          This can be done by talking and learning about pupils' interests regarding the school.

          In a town like Ago Ika, Lafenwa, Ita Oshin pupils are run away from school which brings researchers closer to the topic, to find out the effect of truancy.                   


          The high rate of truancy in town calls for attention. It could generate to pupils not performing very well academically. It could also lead to various forms of criminal, damage, robbery with violence and abusive conduct, etc.

          This study would therefore investigate

i.        What truancy means.

ii.       The causes of truancy.

iii.      The effects of truancy on primary school pupils' academic performance in mathematics.

iv.      The possible solution to the problem.


(i)           What is truancy?

(ii)          What are the causes of truancy?

(iii)        What are the effects of truancy on primary school pupils' academic performance in mathematics.

(iv)         How we can reduce truancy in primary school pupils?


          The study superficially find out

(i)           To examine truancy.

(ii)          To explain causes of truancy.

(iii)        To explain the effects of truancy.

(iv)         To suggest possible solutions to the problem of this study.  


          The study would enable the various benefactor to have a better understanding of what used to prompt our primary school pupils on truancy on school academic.

          The study will be of benefit to the government by given information on the high level of truancy in the schools and its consequent effect. The government in a bid to curb truancy will therefore be able to apply measures capable of eradicating such acts. One of the measures could be a disciplinary measure approved by the government e.g. Government backing schools in given out some punishment to students for such acts. The government could also pass some law banning school pupils and teachers to reduce truancy. Dedicated and intelligent in schools could be motivated through various incentives e.g. money, gift to make students who are truant change their attitude.

          The study would assist parents to pay more attention to the activities of the children in and outside schools for parents who pampered their children and do not give room for correction they would have a change of action to see the need for discipline on the children.  

          The study will help the teacher to assist the pupils as much as possible to develop interesting and the activity based on teaching method it will also make her lesson in class interesting to the pupils. And also make use of the availability of the instructional materials for the pupils to enhance an effective teaching and learning process.       

          The study will help the pupils to be more serious about his or her study. It will also use his free period to read more at home. It will also identify the brilliant pupils in his class and make friends with them so that they can teach him more or explain more of the unknown topic to him. The study will make the pupils pay more attention to education and work towards a great future.  


The study is to cover the primary school in Abeokuta North Local Government Area of Ogun State.


This study was carried out in the Ebenezer Primary School, Olumo Primary School, Army Children School I, Holy Prophet School I and II in Abeokuta North Local Government Area of Ogun State. The reason for using such a small sample is due to financial constraints and time.


(i)           TRUANCY: This is absent from school without a valid excuse.

(ii)          ACADEMIC: Acquired by formal education especially at a primary or secondary school.

(iii)        PERFORMANCE: The act of performing the carrying into exclusive or action, achievement, accomplishment, representation by action.

(iv)         MATHEMATICS: The science of numbers and shapes.

(v)          CONSEQUENCE: A result of something that has happened.

(vi)         DAMAGE: Physical harm caused to something which makes it attractive.

(vii)       CRIMINAL: Connected or involving in breaking the law.

(viii)     VIOLENCE: This is a behavior that is intended to hurt or kill.

(ix)        ROBBERY: The crime of stealing money or goods from the bank, stop, or person.

(x)          ABUSIVE: Involving to hurt or kill.

(xi)        LEGISLATURE: a group of people who have the power to make and change laws.

(xii)       CONDUCT: To organized something or a particular activity.    


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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper

    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

    Click here to complete this article - How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)


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