CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF STREET HAWKING AMONG TEENAGE GIRLS

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CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF STREET HAWKING AMONG TEENAGE GIRLS (A CASE STUDY OF GALADIMA STREET, KADUNA STATE).

ABSTRACTThe research is concerned with “Causes and Effects of Street Hawking Among Teenage Girls” with a case study of Galadima Street, Kaduna State. The most important aspect of this study is to investigate to what extent hawking among the hawkers affects their moral conducts and social relationship with others because no individual person leaves in isolation, the research also aims at determining the socio-economic effects of hawking in order to bring them to the notice of the people and offer possible and valuable suggestions so as to find a lasting solution to the problems which have become cankerworms.TABLE OF CONTENTSTitle page................................................................................. iDeclaration............................................................................... iiApproval page........................................................................... iiiDedication................................................................................ ivAcknowledgment..................................................................... vAbstract.................................................................................... viTable of Content........................................................................ vii

CHAPTER ONEIntroduction1.1        Background of the Problem................................................. 11.2        Statement of the Problem................................................... 41.3        Research Questions........................................................... 51.4        Scope of the study............................................................. 6

CHAPTER TWOLiterature Review2.1... Introduction ..................................................................... 72.2... Conceptual Framework....................................................... 72.3... The Causes of Street Hawking............................................. 82.4... The Social and Economic Implications of Hawking................. 9

CHAPTER THREEResearch Methodology3.1... Introduction...................................................................... 143.2... Area of Study.................................................................... 143.3... The population of the Study...................................................... 143.4... Research Design............................................................... 143.5... Sample and Sampling Techniques....................................... 143.6... Research Instrument......................................................... 153.7... Reliability of the instrument................................................. 153.8... Method of Data Analysis..................................................... 15

CHAPTER FOURData presentation and analysis4.1... Introduction...................................................................... 164.2... Presentation and analysis of the data collected...................... 164.3... Data Analysis.................................................................... 34

CHAPTER FIVESummary, Conclusion, and Recommendations5.1... Introduction...................................................................... 395.2... Summary.......................................................................... 405.3... Conclusion........................................................................ 415.4... Recommendations............................................................. 45References............................................................................... 47Appendix.................................................................................. 49CHAPTER ONEIntroduction1.1      Background of the StudyThe topic of this research is “Causes and Effects of Street hawking Among Teenage Girls” with a case study of Galadima Street in Kaduna State. There is a popular saying in religious circles to the effect that love of money is the root of all evils while this may appear like an exaggeration, it closely contain a gem of truth especially in country like Nigeria where men and women have almost completely lost the true value of money, the purpose of this research topic is to enable the researcher identify the causes of hawking which has become a social problem in the society.Furthermore, having been able to identify the causes of this research topic and the possible social and economic implications, the research intends to offer suggestion as to how the government of the day can come about believe that the knowledge of the causes and the consequent implication of hawking can bring about a high degree of awareness to the members of the general public.This research topic there, is intended to promote better understanding of the subject matter and to investigate the causing role played by individuals and the society in general. The reason for this is that it has been a basic fact that no individual lives in isolation because people are born and bred in one form of group of the other. Above it all, stories have shown in the invaluable influence of other people on the rest members of a given society and vice versa.On the whole, this survey is principally aimed at eradicating all those features of our behaviour in the past which have made our society a by-word for disharmony, dishonesty, distrust and disservice, the survey aims at raising our individual and collective consciousness to enable us dream great dream and attain lofty goals,. To seek and to attain what is noblest in human nature, to place the highest value on and respect the dignity of human life and finally to purse honest endeavours and to take pride in personal advance only through hardwork. Galadima Street is located in the Southern part of Kaduna State which fall in Savannah region of the country. Galadima village derives it name from the word Bare bari a tribe from Borno empire who came in search of knowledge and settled at the olden days Gad around 5,000 years ago. The olden day Galadima was located along Kaduna river in the north and east of present Galadima a boundary with Sabon Gari Street in the South. Fulani herdsmen roaming in search of pasture for their cattles settled with the bare baris while they were busy teaching some of the inhabitants Islamic knowledge and ignoring the art of leadership to the Fulani hence after the demise of first Sarki Muhammadu Yanusa, the Fiulani took advantage of the situation and grab the mantle of leadership after a little scuffle with the immediate successor from the barebari clan, the first Sarki from the house of Fulaniw as Jagawa installed around 17 century, he ruled for five years and died as a result of an undiagnosed ailment, he was succeeded by his son “Lamu” within that period many of the Fulani rules and died within a short period, this creates fear in the heart of Fulani’s hence a settler from Kano in the name of Muhammadu lawal Dare take the throne.However, as a result of attacks of wild animals, the elders decided to relocate to present Galadima Street with Mohammadu Lawal as the first Sarki who ruled for almost 50years, the Fulani make a move to take back what belong to them  and Muhammadu Idris became next Sarki. The indigene of Galadima street are Christians and Muslim but still very much accommodated to people of other religion believe. Although the researcher found out the during the early Galadima street, there are idol worshipers and predominately farmers.Galadima street people are industrious, law abiding and religious citizens, there are quite number of social amenities like Portable water supply, electricity, post office, one commercial bank, one higher institution, Nigeria School of Legal Studies, also have two post primary schools and lots of private primary and secondary schools.

1.2      Statement of the ProblemThe number of teenagers engaged in street hawking has been increasing at an alarming rate in the society. It is also pertinent to note that observation and experience have showed that the average and well to do individuals look forward to see these hawkers to buy things they want to buy or need either internationally or as a result of lack of alternative seller. It is in the light of this therefore, that the researcher intends to know much more about the hawkers and why members of the general public prefer to buy their immediate needs from them despite the various government effort to eradicate the immoral practice even though the parents and guardians of the hawkers seem to turn blind eyes and deaf ears to both its social and economic implications.The researcher is particularly interested in identifying the unalterable group of individually perceive their chosen system of trade, possible reaction from some of the force and aggrieved hawkers. On the whole, the researcher is very much interested in knowing the kinds of steps taken by the government and the factors that led to their occurrence.

1.3      Objective of the StudyThe topic of this research is “Causes and Effects of Street hawking Among Teenage Girls” with a case study of Galadima Street in Kaduna State with the following objectives:1.           To examine the cultural concept of street hawking2.           To identify the causes and effects of street hawking3.           To know the socio-economic impact of street hawking in Galadima street, Kaduna State4.           To indentify the measures government can take to curb or reduce street hawking in Galadima Street, Kaduna State

1.4      Research QuestionsFor earlier conduct of this survey, the researcher has based on two hypothesis below. The following research questions are in mind to serve as a guide:1.           What are the social and economic implication of hawking2.           What are the possible factors responsible for hawking3.           What categories of people indulge themselves in hawking4.           What is the government’s position on hawking and the hawkers?5.           How does the members of the general public perceive hawking and hawkers6.           Is it true that mothers force their children to hawk because of material wealth7.           Do girls hawk to achieve their worldly desire8.           Do husbands fail to provide sufficient fund for the maintenance of their families, a situation which compel mothers to force their children to hawk

1.5   Scope of the StudyThe scope of this study will focus on the effect of street hawking among teenage girls and the study is limited to Galadima Street.

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