The study examines the availability and level of utilization of ICT in teaching and learning of business education courses in Ebonyi State University Abakaliki. The survey design was adopted in the study. A population of 240 respondents was used in the study. A sample of 180 respondents comprising business education students was selected using the simple random sampling technique. The technique of Mean and frequencies were employed in data analysis. The findings of the study indicate interactive ICT facilities are grossly lacking for teaching and learning of business education courses. Also, it was revealed in the study that interactive ICT are not utilized for teaching business education courses. Non interactive ICT devices were also revealed to be lacking for teaching of business education courses and were thereby rarely utilized in business education implementations. From the findings of the study, it was recommended that Government and other relevant stakeholders in education should provide adequate ICT resources for the teaching of business education courses in tertiary institutions. This will enable teachers to effectively utilize them in the classroom and at the same time help to equip students with appropriate ICT skills needed for effective functioning in the modern electronic age, In-service training programme such as seminars, on-the-job retraining and retraining programmes, workshops on ICT resources utilization should be mounted on a regular basis for serving business educators in tertiary institutions and finally, ICT agencies should assist with free distribution of ICT resources to tertiary institutions as their corporate social responsibility to communities. Free donation of ICT equipment will help communities of practice to utilize them since findings shows that non utilization is associated with non-availability of ICT resources.

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Background to the Study

Teaching and learning are inseparable concepts with learning playing more of judgmental role to teaching. It is believed that “unless the child learns the teacher has not taught”. Though teaching and learning are intimately linked processes and are interdependent as well as inter woven, teaching is a social phenomenon, while learning is a psychological phenomenon. It is teaching which generally results into learning but there can be learning without teaching. Teachers in the recent trend of teaching and learning are therefore seen as facilitators or guide, and I believe this can better be enhanced through utilisation of ICT facilities.

 The nub of teaching learning process lies in the moment by moment relationship between the willing leaner and the competent co-teacher. Rao (2008) quoted Burton (2001) who argues that teaching can be made effective by relating it to learning; teaching objectives can be identified in behavioural term and appropriate learning situations may be created to realise these objectives. The appropriate teaching condition or structures may be generated for effective learning; the effective teaching aids may be selected for creating strategies and tactics may be selected to achieve the optimal object of learning; the concept of relationship of teaching and learning will be an aid to understand the nature of teaching and thereby, teaching theories may be evolved. The knowledge of the relationship will equally be helpful for teaching to produce effective Business Education teachers.

 ICT has been acknowledged globally as one of the greatest techniques infused into the teaching learning process. It is used in the context of this research work to imply a diverse set of electronic technologies, technological tools and resources used to communicate, disseminate, store and manage information in the course of teaching and learning. ICT include computers, the internet, broadcasting technologies and telephony (Adoni and Kpangbam, 2010; Chukwudi and Ejita, 2008). The impact of ICT on learning is the vision that it enables learning anywhere, any time and anyhow. ICTs are utlised during academic activities especially by lecturers and students (Usang, Azubuike and Umoren, 2007).  Anissimov (2009); Bless and Truth (2009) and Bliss (2009) agrees with this view but further noted that there is variation in the level of usage of ICT in tertiary institutions among countries.

The emergence of information and communication technology (ICT) has totally revolutionalized the way we access, process, store, retrieve and disseminate within organisation or across the globe according to Miller and Akume (2009).

 Information and communication technology refers to a systematic process of gathering, processing, storing, sending and retrieving of information through the print, broadcast, computing and telecommunications media (Onwuagboke, 2009). Similarly, Achuonye (2002) sees information and communication technology as the collection, storage, processing dissemination and use of information. Information and communication technology has the potential to accelerate, enrich and deepen skills; motivate and engage students in learning; it also help in relating school experiences to work practices, helps to create economic viability for workers; contributes to radical changes in school; strengthen teaching and provides opportunities for connection between the school and the world (Kirschner and Woperies, 2003).

 Ogunsola (2005) sees ICT as an electronically based system of information transmission, reception, processing and retrieval which has drastically changed the way we think, the way we live and the environment in which we live.  Information  and communication technology offer several opportunities in education, they can be used as a means of preparing the current generation of students for future workplace, that is, providing tools for tomorrows practices. This is underscored in the foreword written by Lemke .C. (1999) in the Milken exchange on education technology commissioned report. Lemke noted inter alia “ today’s  students live  in a global knowledge based age, and they deserve teachers use of technology (ICTs) students can be given the opportunities of becoming a part of the knowledge age and skills imparted to the  young people in an increasing complex world.

Teachers will need to use ICTs in order to equip tomorrow’s employees and customers with the requisite competence and knowledge to use ICTs within their work (Davis & Tearle, 1999).  ICT has impacted on the quality and quantity of teaching and learning through its dynamic, interactive and engaging. ICT has simplified education through the application of electronics media, internet etc. Ndukwe (2006), emphasized that the production and introduction of calculators and computers in the education system worldwide has helped in simplifying teaching and learning in schools, thereby content, and it provide real opportunities for individualized instruction.

          Business education is one of the courses taught in tertiary institution is that aspect of the total education programme that provides the knowledge, skills, understanding and attitudes needed to perform in the business world as producer or consumer of goods and services that business offer (Igboke, 2012). Azubuike (2013), noted that business education fall under creative, technical and vocational courses within the high institution programme. The course is aimed at equipping students with practical business skills which will enable them to participate meaningfully in production in future. As a practical course, it is intended to prepare student for the world of work; both as employees and as employers ,  oyebade (2008) and (chibuzor, 2012) and also stated that business education is an essential element of general education; this is because it is concerned with entrepreneurship development among the students. He further stated that, it is concerned with the act of imparting business orientation. Furthermore, Okoli (2010) noted that business education is an important part of the general education which emphasizes on the acquisition of skills and competencies for use in offices and business related occupation. Similarly, Nwazi (2010) describes business education as encompassing education for office occupation, business teaching, business administration and economic understanding. In all, Abdulkadir (2011) opines that one remarkable important characteristic of business education programme is that, its products can function independently as self-Employed and Employers of labour. To this end, the tenet of business education embraces basic education for teaching career, entrepreneurship, business understanding, office management and vocational practices.

Azubuike (2013), enumerated the following as the objectives of business education at all levels of education;

-      To develop basic skills for personal use in the future

-      To prepare students for further training in business education.

-      To provide the needed background for teaching in business courses.

-      To develop basic skills in office occupation.

-      To relate the knowledge and skills acquired to national development.

-      To acquire the basic knowledge and skills of business education.

-      To provide orientation and basic skills with which start a life of work for those who may not undergo further training.


Statement of the Problem

Over the years there has been a general poor performance in business education courses, this is not only applicable in secondary examinations were business education subjects are taught but also in university precisely under business education most students who enrol in business education department do not graduate successfully with their mate.

Unfortunately, in Ebonyi State University in Department of Business Education, there are little or no ICT tools for teaching and learning in various classrooms. teaching and learning method in the class rooms in department of business education still adopt the old traditional method of teaching, where the teacher acts at repertoire of knowledge while student are busy coping what is said and expected to vomit them verbatim during examination. It is worrisome because this has led to massive failure in examinations as the students are rarely grounded in their learning but are mainly subjected to mere memorization of the topics taught.

          The present study contributes to the literature on the use of ICT in education by examining the availability and level of utilization of ICT in teaching and learning of business education courses in Ebonyi state university.

Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of the study is to determine the availability and the level of utilization of ICT in teaching and learning of business education courses in Ebonyi State University. The specific objectives are

1.       To ascertain the availability of interactive ICT in teaching and learning of business education courses in Ebonyi State University.

2.       To ascertain the level of utilization of interactive ICT in teaching and learning of business education courses in Ebonyi state university.

3.       To determine the availability of non-interactive ICT in teaching and learning of business education in Ebonyi state university.

4.       To determine the level of utilization of non- interactive ICT in teaching and learning of business education courses in Ebonyi state university.

Significance of the Study

          The findings of the study will be of immense benefit to the students, teachers, education shake holders, the government philanthropists.

Information and communication technology is of great important to teachers and students of business education in Ebonyi State University; this is because from this research, they will able to ascertain the important of information and communication in teaching and learning.

Secondly, this work will be of great important to educational stakeholders. This is because from the research they will be able to know the plight of the student and therefore work out modalities to solve the problems.

Thirdly, this work will be of great important to the government through the ministry of education they would be able to ascertain the course of poor performance of the student of business education and work out modalities to solve the problems.

Furthermore, the work will be of great important to the philanthropists in the area, this is because from the work, they will be able to identify problem of students in studying business education. This will encourage them to donate information and communication technology tools that will be used in teaching and learning in the area.

Finally, the findings would be useful to curriculum planners.                                                  Curriculum planners who would wish to resolve the issue of the availability and utilization ICT instructional materials may have cause to know the true situation and properly restructure business education programme curriculum to take care of inadequacies. Curriculum planners would be more objective when the findings are taken to consideration.

Research Questions   

The following research question’s guided the study:     

1.       To what extent are interactive ICT available for teaching and learning of business education courses in Ebonyi State University?

2.   To what extent are interactive ICT utilized in teaching and learning of business education courses in Ebonyi State University?

3.  To what extent are non interactive ICT available for teaching business education courses in Ebonyi State University?

4.  To what extent are non interactive ICT utilized in teaching and learning of business education courses in Ebonyi State University?


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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper

    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

    Click here to complete this article - How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)


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