CHAPTER ONE 1.1      


There is no gainsaying about the fact that Biology occupies a very sensitive position in medical science and related disciplines. This informs several efforts geared towards studying biology at a secondary level of education. It is, however, very disheartening and heartbreaking that despite the key role and much emphasis, being laid on Biology, students at the secondary school level of education are still performing woefully in this subject and this has been an issue of great concern to stakeholders in education, most especially those in the field of science. This has been attributed to a myriad of factors such as poor parenting, poor attitude of students towards their studies. Bassey (2005) opined that several problems are associated with conventional methods of teaching. This indirectly results in poor performance of students. Bassey (2005) attributed this syndrome in the educational sector to a lack of perceived competence among the learners. However, Adegbite (2000) and Olaleye (1985) views on the causes of poor performance differs. They posited very strongly that the wrong location of the market place, highway, airport, industrial areas constitute an academic unfriendly environment for learners.

Agusibo (2008) asserted that many schools lack the necessary facilities for teaching generally. She however opines that the theoretical aspect of teaching alone will not make learners know the rudimentary fact of most science subjects, particularly Biology. She, therefore, made a clarion call to all the key players, international organizations like the United State Agency for international development, United Nation International Children Education Fund to render invaluable services by rescuing most schools by making available qualified teachers of Biology and making available supportive services for the teaching of Biology and other science subjects.


The roles of the teachers in students’ performance cannot be over-emphasized. The progressive decline in secondary school students’ academic performance has raised a lot of questions as regards Nigeria’s educational system, of which the qualities of teachers are a key factor. Agusibo (2008), however observing that the absence of qualified teachers to teach Biology does contribute significantly to the poor performance of students in Biology. This seems to be corroborated by the West African Examination Council (2009) report on Biology, most especially. It is an obvious and glaring fact that in most of the secondary schools in Nigeria, some teachers teaching this subject are not professionally qualified. The professional qualifications required of any teacher in Nigeria are NCE, BSc (Ed), B.Ed, or PGDE in cases where teachers are not professionally qualified. On a general note, teachers without adequate educational backgrounds have been found to be ineffective in terms of instructional delivery competence. It is against this background; this study was carried out to ascertain the quality of Biology teachers as correlates to students’ performance in Biology of senior secondary schools in Ifo Local Government area of Ogun State.


The broad objective of this study is to investigate the role which the teachers’ quality plays on students’ academic performance in Biology of Senior Secondary Schools in Ifo Local Government Area, Ogun State, Nigeria. This research work specifically sought to:

i.                    Find out what teachers’ quality entails

ii.                  Ascertain whether teachers’ experience enhances the better performance of students in Biology.

iii.                Examine whether teachers' use of appropriate instructional materials improves students’ academic performance.


The findings of the study will broaden students’ knowledge, steer up their interest in Biology and improve the teaching skills of teachers in various senior secondary schools in the study area and Nigeria at large. It is hoped that the findings of this study will build a proper link between students’ academic performance in Biology in Ogun State and the quality needed for teachers’ effectiveness in handling this subject across the state.


To effectively carry out this research, the following questions were raised.

i.                    Do students perform better when taught by professionally trained teachers than when taught by non-professional teachers?

ii.                  Does teachers’ experience enhance the better performance of students in Biology?

iii.                Does the availability and appropriate use of instructional materials affect the performance of students in Biology?

iv.                Does a teacher’s language of communication influence students’ academic performance in Biology?


The following hypothesis has been formulated to guide this research work.

Ho1:     There is no significant relationship between Biology teachers’ methodology and the academic performance of students.

Ho2:     There is no significant effect of teachers’ motivational techniques on the performance of students in Biology.


This study is limited to the teachers’ quality as correlates of students’ academic performance in Biology in Senior Secondary Schools in the Ifo Local Government area of Ogun State. It also investigates the impact of instructional materials and methodology used by teachers as it aids students’ academic performance and achievement. The study is conducted in senior secondary schools within Ifo Local Government Area, Ogun State.


The limitations of this study have been attributed to lack of funds and time, which have necessarily limited the access to the number of schools and teachers in this study, also participation and cooperation from teachers in the schools were part of the constraints


TEACHER: A person who provides education for students (school teacher).

TEACHERS’ QUALITY: This includes reviews of qualifications test of teachers’ knowledge, teaching methods, use of instructional materials, observations of practice, and measurements of students learning gains.

STUDENTS PERFORMANCE: This is the outcome of education the extent to which a student has achieved their educational goals. 


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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper

    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

    Click here to complete this article - How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)


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