AN APPRAISAL OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF MACROECONOMIC POLICIES IN PROMOTING ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIA
This research work tries to investigate the effectiveness of macroeconomic policy in promoting economic growth in Nigeria. Macroeconomic policies, which are defined as government actions designed to affect the performance of the economy as a whole. Data used in this research (GDP, government expenditure, money supply) was mainly secondary, specifically from the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN). These data were analyzed using the econometric technique. After the data analysis, it was discovered that money supply has a positive relationship with the GDP while the government expenditure is universally related to GDP. Also, the monetary and fiscal policies were compared. At the end of the research, conclusions were drawn and reasonable recommendations were given.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.2 Statement of problems
1.3 Significance of the study
1.4 Aim and objectives of the study
1.5 Research methodology
1.6 Statement of hypothesis
1.7 Scope/limitation of the study
1.8 Characterization of the study
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.2 Conceptual overview of macroeconomic policy
2.3 Major goals of macroeconomic policy
2.3.1 Economic growth
2.3.2 Full employment
2.3.3 Economic equity
2.3.4 Stabilizing balance of payment
2.3.5 Price stability
2.4 Types of macroeconomic policy
2.4.1 Monetary policy
2.4.2 Fiscal policy
2.5 Monetary versus fiscal policy
2.5.1 Keynesian range
2.5.2 The classical for monetarist range
2.5.3 The intermediate range
MACROECONOMIC POLICY IN NIGERIA (1993-2007)
3.2 Policy implementation agencies
3.3 Monetary and fiscal policies in Nigeria: between1994-2007
3.4 The global financial crisis
3.5 Problems of macroeconomic policy in Nigeria
3.6 Policy recommendations
DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION
4.2 Methods of analysis
4.2.1 Regression analysis
4.2.2 Correlation technique
4.2.3 Hypothesis test
4.2.4 Durbin Watson test
4.3 Sources of data
4.3.1 Model specification and hypothesis
4.3.2 Apriori expectation
4.3.3 Specification bias
4.4 Data presentation
4.5 Interpretation of result
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary of findings
5.4 Area for further research
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
It has been historically evidenced that the market mechanism does not ensure general equilibrium and stability in the economy. As a result, macroeconomic problems-business cycles, inflation, deflation, stagflation, and unemployment continue to arise time and again. Therefore, the government is forced to adopt policy measures to redress the problems as and when they arise. If governments are to intervene in the economy, there still remains the problem of selecting the appropriate instruments of achieving the targets they set for themselves.
Macroeconomics, which was introduced by Ragnar Frisch in 1933 during the period of the great depression globally, applies to the study of relations between broad economic aggregates. It refers to the study of the performance of the national economy as well as the policies used to improve that performance. Policy on the other hand, according to the Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary means plan action agreed or chosen by a political party, business, etc.
Macroeconomic policies, therefore, can be defined as government actions designed to affect the performance of the economy as a whole. It can also be defined as a program of action undertaken to control, regulate and manipulate macroeconomic variables to achieve the macroeconomic goals of the society. In the words of Brooks and Evans, "Macroeconomic policy can be thought of as an attempt by the authorities to achieve particular target levels of certain major economic aggregates". A macroeconomic policy is, infact an instrument of policing the economy (if one may use that phrase) to achieve certain economic goals. As regards the scope of macroeconomic policy, it encompasses all major economic variables. Macroeconomic variables include both real and monetary variables. Real variables include Gross National Product (GNP), Total Employment, Aggregate Expenditure, Saving and Investment Government Expenditure as well as tax and Non-Tax Revenue, Exports and Imports and the balance of Payment, Monetary Variables include the supply of money, demand for money, supply of credit, bank deposit as well as the interest rate. Accordingly, there are two kinds of tools or measures to control and regulate the macroeconomic variables namely; monetary measure and fiscal measure.
Some economist believes that "The need for macroeconomic policy arises because the economic system does not adjust appropriately to the shocks to which it is constantly subjected". However, the role of macroeconomic policy did not remain confined to controlling business cycles, it was extended far beyond.
Before and after Nigeria got its independence in 1960, the Nigerian economy can be characterized as an economy that has witnessed a variety of macroeconomic policies, not all have, however, succeeded in achieving the laid down objectives of the macroeconomic policies. In the past few years, the Nigerian economy has witnessed serious macroeconomic problems, characterized by a slow down in economic activities, low capacity utilization, growing unemployment, heavy debt burden, accelerated inflation, intensified exchange rate depreciation, as well as the high and perverted regime of interest rates.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
The motive of any development effort is to bring about improvement in the standard of living of the people. It is to this end that macroeconomic objectives are directed. Therefore, it follows that there is a functional and significant relationship between macroeconomic policies and stated objectives. The economy of developing countries like Nigeria is characterized by a lot of economic problems such as a high rate of inflation, unemployment, unfavorable balance of payment, and many others. Over the years, many instruments of macroeconomic policy have been employed to check these backward phenomena. Hence, this study aims towards evaluating the effectiveness of these macroeconomic policies in achieving the predetermined targets.
1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is hoped that this research work will be practically and theoretically significant as it will contribute to and move the frontiers of knowledge. There is no doubt that this study will benefit quite a number of people.
In -the first instance, the research work will be extremely important to students in their academic pursuit. Secondly, experts and policymakers will find it a good and useful companion in their effort to formulate policies. Furthermore, this research work will equally be germane to the state, in that it will enhance effective and efficient formulation and implementation of policies with a view to achieving macroeconomic objectives.
1.4 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
In the literature of macroeconomic theory, some serious prepositions have been made as to the effectiveness or otherwise of macroeconomic policy especially in developing countries like Nigeria. In view of this, the aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of macroeconomic policy in promoting economic growth in Nigeria. The objectives are;
To highlight the extent to which money supply affects the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) To assess the macroeconomic policies put in place in the Nigerian economy from 1993-2007; to see if it has any positive or negative effects on the Nigerian economy. To evaluate the effect of major macroeconomic variables on the Gross Domestic Product (GDP).
1.5 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This consists of the following:
1.5.1 SOURCES OF DATA
This research work is limited to a secondary source of data. The secondary data shall be obtained basically from the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) various publications, National Bureau of Statistic (NBS), and other relevant publications for a period of fifteen (15) years (that is 1993-2007).
1.5.2 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS
After the data needed must have obtained, it shall be analyzed via the use of statistical and econometric methodology such as simple regression, multiple regression, and variance analysis. The study will also go further to conduct the test of significant standard error and F-test
1.5.3 MODEL SPECIFICATION
In a linear multiple regression model, the dependent or explained variable (Y) is related to a number of independent or explanatory variables; X1, X2, X3........ Xn by the following expression
Yt = βo + β1X1 + β2X2 + µ ... βnXn where βo is the intercept and βl,β2,β3......... βn are unknown parameters called the population regression, coefficient and µ is the random or stochastic variable
Using linear regression model, the functional relationship between gross domestic product (GDP) Government expenditure and money supply is estimated as follows;
GDP= F(MOS, Govt. Exp)
Where GDP is the dependent variable
MOS = Money Supply
GDP = F(GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURE, MONEY SUPPLY)
GDP = βo +β1X1 + β2X2 + Ut
1.6 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
Ho: Money Supply and Government Expenditure do not have a significant effect on the gross domestic product (GDP).
H1: Money Supply and Government Expenditure have a significant effect on the gross domestic product (GDP).
1.7 SCOPE/LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study will cover macroeconomic policies in Nigeria for a
period of fifteen years, starting from 1993 to 2007.
The limitation of this study is those conceptual problems that the research work would encounter. These include time and inadequacy of funds for the research.
Another limitation is that of the inadequate and inaccurate databases in less developed countries in which Nigeria is not an exception. However, the research will make efficient use of available time and data at his disposal towards the realization of the goals of the study
1.8 CHAPTERIZATION OF THE STUDY
This study will be divided into five chapters.
In the first chapter, which is the introduction, various objectives intended to be achieved in carrying out this research work will be looked at. In addition, the research hypothesis, as well as the scope and limitation of the study, will be stated among other things.
Chapter two, which is the literature review examines the two macroeconomic policies (monetary policy and fiscal policy) in detail, as well as their impacts in promoting economic growth in Nigeria.
In Chapter three, which is the structural composition, the macroeconomic policy as it affects Nigeria will be discussed.
Chapter four contains data analysis. The data to be analyzed will be obtained from secondary data majorly from the CBN publication. These data will be analyzed through the use of the statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) with the use of the econometrics technique, specifically, regression analysis.
The summary, conclusion, and recommendation will be presented in chapter five.
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