INFRASTRUCTURE DISTRIBUTION AND ITS EFFECT ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN UNIVERSITY UYO, AKWA IBOM STATE (A CASE STUDY OF UNIVERSITY OF UYO, UYO)
TABLE OF CONTENTTitle Page………………..iCertification……………iiDedication………………iiiAcknowledgment……….ivAbstract…………………viTable of content………viiCHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTION1.1 Background lo the Study - - - - - - - - 11.2 Statement of the Problem - - - - - - - 51.3 Purpose of the study - - - - - - - - 61.4 Objectives of the Study - - - - - - - - 71.5 Research Questions - - - - - - - - - 71.6 Significance of the Study - - - - - - - 81.7 Limitations of the Study - - - - - - - - 81.8 Delimitations of the Study - - - - - - - 91.9 Assumptions of the Study - - - - - - - - 91.10 Definitions of Significant Terms - - - - - - 91.11 Organization of the Study - - - - - - - - 10
CHAPTER TWOLITERATURE REVIEW2.1 Introduction - - - - - - - - - - 112.2. Effects of Physical Layout of Learning Infrastructure on Students' - 112.3 Effect of Co-curriculum Infrastructure on Student Performance in University of Uyo - - - - - - - - 12 2.4 Effect of Government Policy on Student Performance in University of Uyo - - - - - - - - 122.5 Summary of Literature Review - - - - - - 13
CHAPTER THREERESEARCH METHODOLOGY3.1 Introduction - - - - - - - - - 143.2 Research Design - - - - - - - - - 143.3 Target Population - - - - - - - - - 153.4 Sample Size and Sampling Procedures - - - - - 15
CHAPTER FOURDATA ANALYSIS, DISCUSSION, AND INTERPRETATION4.1 Introduction - - - - - - - - - 17
CHAPTER FIVESUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS5.1 Introduction - - - - - - - - - 185.2 Summary of the Findings - - - - - - - 185.3 Conclusions of the Study - - - - - - - 215.4 Recommendations - - - - - - - - - 225.5 Recommendations for Further Research - - - - - 23References - - - - - - - - - - 24
CHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTION1.1 Background of the Study In both developed and developing nations, education is a very crucial process through which an individual's life chances are determined. Beyond the economic significance, education is viewed as a good in itself and indeed a basic human right with regard to the lower level of education (World Bank, 1995). Education is a universal investment in human beings and a value resource for economic benefit of the country. The governments all over the world committed themselves to the provision of Education for All (EFA) at Dakar, Senegal in 2000 (UNESCO, 2003)Education does not exist in a vacuum but in an environment structured of physical facilities and material resources that are used in teaching and learning. The specifications given for the establishment, management and material resources in public secondary schools are stipulated in the laws need policies that govern the county’s educational system. The goal of infrastructure system in the universities seeks to increase school attendance of students, enhance staff motivation and to improve academic achievement of students. There is a link between school architecture and its users, (students and teachers); Research has shown that a well planned school with clean and safe learning environment is important for academic achievement (Cash 1993, Earthman & Lemaster 1996). Physical facilities play a key role in the attainment of the school's intended objectives and overall quality performance in national examinations. Federal universities (University of Uyo) Is often characterized by lack of infrastructure facilities such as adequate classrooms, latrines, hostels and laboratories. Ironically the introduction of Federal universities has been touted as an accelerator of the aforementioned problems. Since its inception, more students now attend school, however a number of challenges continue to plague the implementation of these programs including overstretched facilities such as lecture halls, latrines, hostels and laboratories and overcrowding. It may be a fact that dilapidated; crowded or uncomfortable school infrastructure leads to low morale among the students, teachers and the parents. hence this leads to the drop in achievement when school facilities are inadequate (Fraizer, 1993). In Nigeria, a study by Ejionueme (2007) stales that the physical infrastructure in secondary schools were poor and would continue to adversely affect the contributions of secondary education to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Educational facilities contribute directly to jr remotely to the teaching and learning processes in the educational system. These facilities and environment also portray the quality of the institution in terms of their staff or students, friendliness, safety and relevance (Okoiye and Uche, 2004). In West African especially in Nigeria poor physical infrastructure is a common feature in many educational institutions. Most universities are characterized by ramshackle infrastructure. In addition, new programs and expanded intake have been suggested without matching development of the physical infrastructure (Stephen, 2002). In Nigeria conditions in uyo Akwa Ibom state create hurdles for children to get quality education and form barriers to school planning (Dieky, 2002). Most schools rarely meet the basic standards of health and inspection, because they are poorly planned (Siringi, 2009). With the introduction of broad-based curriculum at all levels of education which has led to a more diversified and specialized programme’s there is need for effective planning of physical facilities and material resources (01embo,1992). Organization, coordination and supervision are required in scheduling the use of space equipment and relating availability of effective teaching and learning (Olembo, 1992). This policy has however worsened the quality of education due-to high enrollments with limited physical infrastructure in the University of Uyo which is the main focus of this study) is a semi-arid area mainly inhabited by pastoralists who move from one place to another in Search of green pastures for their livestock. As a result of the nomadic lifestyle many schools have not constructed permanent institutional infrastructure needed for delivery of quality education. This has contributed to students' dropouts, absenteeism and overall poor performance (GOK, 2003). In secondary school education, the gross enrolment rate has been generally low (that is; 21 JVo) and hence poses a great challenge to achievement of Education For All (UNICEF, 2003). Development/ construction of adequate and permanent infrastructure in the University of Uyo would greatly increase students' enrollments; improve delivery of quality education and overall student performance in the schools (Ouma, 2l 11). Due to these facts, the study aims at an assessing the impact of school infrastructure factors that on Students' performance in the University of Uyo, Uyo. Education is no doubt, a dynamic instrument of change. It is not only the key to maintaining freedom in our land; it is also a key to continued growth of freedom throughout the world. As a result, there is a compulsory need for every individual to be educated. The school as an educational institution is basically established for instruction and learning. Within the framework of education production function, educational goals, diverse personnel, curriculum, knowledge, physical facilities, materials, students, finance, and so on, are inputs into the school system with the aim of producing well equipped outputs. To ensure that the school is effective and efficient in the performance of its functions, the three components of men, money and materials must be harmoniously available and managed. Coombs (1968) as cited by Osahon (2001) asserted that “any productive system whatever its aim and technology, require management. It must have leadership and direction, supervision and coordination, constant evaluation and adjustment.” In the past, the components of men and money were emphasized to the neglect of materials aspect in school management. Recently, however, efforts are shifting to the material component since no meaningful and positive teaching and learning can take place without school facilities. School facilities are the material resources that facilitate effective teaching and learning in schools. Castalsi (1971), defined them as those things of education which enables a skilful teacher to achieve a level of instructional effectiveness that far exceeds what is possible when they are not provided. According to Osahon (2001) cited Ogbodo (1996), educational facilities are those material things that facilitate teaching and learning processes in the school. Some of the reasons for inadequacy of facilities and equipment in Nigerian schools has been sudden increase in enrolment of children in schools and reduced level of local support for schools. By nature, educational facilities have been positively linked with students’ academic performance and educational efficiency (Osahon, 1994). In order to realize the educational goals of the school and the school system, funds and facilities are required for the various activities of the school programme as well as for the extra-curricular activities.1.2 Statement of the Problem Adedipe (2007) noted that inadequacy of such physical resources like classrooms, laboratories, libraries and other academic resources translates to poor results because it breeds over crowdedness. The organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OEDC) has observed that the planning and design of educational facilities for schools, colleges and universities has impact on educational outcomes. This outcome is usually had to quantify and management cost of the facilities are substantial on the public education expenditure. With the remarkable increase in both number of universities and the present trend of placement of students, resulting in over crowdedness and overstretched carrying capacity, one wonders if this tremendous increase in placement corresponds with state of available and needed physical facilities. This research is set to examine the position of physical resources in the face of increase in placement.1.3 Purpose of the studyOne of the major concerns of this research is to examine how universities plan to discharge their assignment in offering quality education especially in the area of physical facilities so as to keep pace with increase in placement of students, it is hoped that some proposed viable strategies will enhance repositioning of universities for global competition1.4 Objectives of the Study The following were the objectives of the study: i. To determine the extent to which the physical layout of teaching and ii. learning infrastructure affects students' performance in university of Uyoiii. To analyze how adequacy of existing boarding infrastructure influences iv. students' performance in university of Uyov. To establish how co-curricular infrastructure influences students vi. performance in university of Uyo 1.5 Research Questions The research was guided by the following questions: i. What is the extent to which physical layout of teaching and learning infrastructure affect students' performance in university of Uyoii. What is the adequacy of existing boarding infrastructure and its impact on the students' performance in university of Uyoiii. What is the physical layout of co-curricular infrastructure and its effects on performance of students in university of Uyoiv. What is the extent which adherence of government policy in school infrastructure affects students' performance in university of Uyo1.6 Significance of the Study This study could be useful to the Ministry of Education and Ministry of Finance in formulation policies and strategies to boast development of infrastructure in the schools to increase students' access to education and disbursement of infrastructure funds to universities in NigeriaThe findings of this study may provide useful information for head teachers and Board of Governors (BOG) and Parents and Teachers Association (PTA) as stakeholders to know the infrastructures which affect student performance in school. The findings of this study will form a basis for further researchers who might be interested in advancing this study on the other regions of the country.1.7 Limitations of the StudyThis study targeted current students and teachers in the University of Uyo therefore the accuracy of the data defended on the willingness of the respondent who gave accurate information during the field work. The other limitation was that the study relied on the students’ perception on the existing state on the infrastructure in their school which is a qualitative aspect and varies from one person to the others. There are possibilities that the researcher were only probe to the extent that the respondents allow.1.8 Delimitations of the StudyThe study was based in the University of Uyo. The study focused on students andLecturers in the University of Uyo to establish the influence of infrastructure on students' performance in the University of Uyo.
1.10 Assumptions of the StudyThe following were assumptions were made1. Respondents were to give accurate, truthful and honest responses to the questions asked.2. Student’s in the university of Uyo were to make responsible judgment about the existing infrastructural facilities within their schools.1.10 Definitions of Significant Terms1. Hotel facilities refers to physical infrastructures which support students stay in School such toilets, cafeteria and as among others.2. Co-curricular facilities are those infrastructures that are meant to bring social and physical adjustments in a child. These include fields, recreation centers, rooms for indoor games among others.3. Corporate Governance refers framework of rules, relationships, systems and processes within and by which authorities are exercised and controlled.4. 4Government policy refers to the guidelines of operating institutions, learning facilities refers to physical space and equipment’s that supports teaching and learning programmes they include; lecture hall, laboratories and libraries.5. Infrastructure refers to the basic systems and services that are necessary for an organization to run smoothly. This study will mainly focus on physical facilities in the schools.6. 6 Retention refers to the state or action of retaining to keep possession1.11 Organization of the Study The study was organized into five chapters. Chapter one consists of the background to the study, statement to the problem, purpose of the study, objectives of the study, limitations and delimitations of the study, assumptions of the study and organization of the study. Chapter two focuses on literature review and conceptual framework, the literature will check on what scholars and researchers have found. Chapter three focuses on the research methodology. It shows justification of the area of study, research design, target population, sample and sampling procedure, research instruments, validity and reliability of instruments, data processing and analysis. Chapter four contains a conclusion for the study in which the major findings will be noted and discussed. Important implication will be pointed out and recommendation given as well as suggestions for further research..