THE INFLUENCE OF ECONOMIC BACKGROUND ON STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN EDO STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

The academic performance of student in economic in secondary school these days has been attributed to many family factors. Many people including the sociologist, psychologists and philosopher have carried out a number of researches into those factors that hinder or enhance student performance in economics. They include poor quality of teaching, irregular attendance at school, emotional attitude of the child to school and school subject, defective physical condition which are manifest in poor hearing, bad vision, impediment of speech, the environment and the social as well as the economic background of the come among other related factors. The raging friction between the school as to which of the two is in fact responsible for the poor or good performance of student in economic examination has enabled the researcher to a take a cursory look at the influence of economic background on the academic performance of student. In his research, Ovia North East Local Government Area of Edo state is chosen as a case study.

The study is rooted in the theory hat there is need for a close cooperation between the home and the school for an understanding of the learning problem of children.

The society has apparently decided for better or worse to educate it children outside the home in separate, self contained, single purpose establishments. Having lived of education from home in this way, to go on and discuss the way they influence each other could be a matter of for they can be resolved, must at the root of all discussion about teacher parent relation. There was a time when parents namely entered school except to assault-looking schoolmaster. Teachers for their part were supposed to be quality of showing no interest in the home to which their pupils belonged. However, nowadays there is undoubtedly a considerable upsurge of interest in the relationship between home and school, and a trend towards ensuring this interest I various formal organisation and system very many schools have parents-teacher organisation many areas have action groups of one sort of another, you have the national confederation of parent-teacher association and the advisory centre for education, all of whom are very much concerned with home school links for the purpose of educational achievement of children.

          Similarly, it has been accepted that learning can occur in many different settings, in the home and play ground, for example as well as in the classroom. Every child bring with him into the class room all his ear her home training and experience, a kind of internal environment that makes him an environmental factors of considerable significance to others. A learning environment is therefore more than that can be measured in the students immediate physical surrounding, it includes everything inside and outside the space the child occupies which in any way affects his behaviour during a particular learning routine. Economic background characteristics associated with academic performance and intelligence can be divided into two status variable high economic status and low economic status. Both status are determined by the level of education, occupation, and income in the society. These variables though interesting, tell little about how their effect are mediated to child and into process variables, such as achievement process of parents, home language models, academic home guidance and social participation of family.

          It is believed that the level of education determines income and occupation of an individual. This is in turn determines the persons status. But this is not so again because of his health. So because of this variance, the researches will look at the relationship between academic performance and these variables. The size of the family will not be left out in the research as one of the variable. Though social class in most often used as a child economic background variable in western European societies and north America, it is rather difficult, if not impossible at this stage to use the social class variable  in the developing countries of Asia, Africa and Nigeria in particular in the same way as it is used in western European countries. Two reasons can be suggested for this, firstly, there has not been any attempt classify occupations in these developing countries. Secondly, and perhaps the more important reasons is that the social system of the extended family in these developing country would make social class based on occupation meaningless for instance a man in a developing country in a good job with a very salary per annum, may not afford to live a middle class family probably because a lot of people depend on his single salary for their existence so because of this, the size of the family will be looked at as one of the variable. The different kinds of family-polygamous and monogamous will not be left out in this research.

          The high light of what will be found in each chapter is as follows: the first chapter deals with the statement of problems and relevant research questions are formulated which the second chapter deals with critical reviews of important literature on the subject. This exercise seen as a guide to reveal the variables that have been found to be important as well as the gaps in previous studies on the determinant of performance of individuals. It also enabled the researcher as well as the useful hypothesis, which emerged from their works. An examination of the literature also helped in the formulations of the research problems. Third chapter discusses the various methods which been employed in collecting the data including the operationalisation of the concepts and the descriptive statistics. The fourth chapter deals with the analysis of the data collected. The findings from these analyses are also explained and interpreted with the context of the theoretical framework. The work ends with chapter five the conclusions which summaries what had been done in the survival for further research and then the gaps in the study that can be filled by further research are also pointed out.

STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS      

          Today teachers are often blame for the low academic performance of the students without actually findings out other related factors that can contribute to the students problems as far as academic is concerned, most parents are quick to point accusing fingers at both the child and his teachers, should the whole problems be entirely heaped on teachers who always want the best for their pupils? One would like to find out the justifications the parents have for blaming the teachers as regards the low performance of the students in their academic. The truth is that the foundation of the child’s socialization is laid at home. More so children spend more time at home than in school. Many factors associated with the family could have actually contributed to the high or low performance of the students with the economic as one of them. The class strata in our society based on economic ground have become common phenomena. There is an unequal distribution of wealth among citizens. Thus there arise the have and the have not, the educated and the illiterate poverty stricken masses. The study therefore considered the influence of those stratified classes on student’s academic performance in other words, the study is focused upon how the academic performance of the students can influence by the family economic status. The following research questions are posed by the researcher.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS        

1.    Does the economic status of parents affect the educational performance of student

2.    Does parent’s educational status affect the educational performance of their children?

3.    Does the family size affect the student’s educational performance?

4.    Does lack of educational facilities influence the educational performance of students?

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY 

The purpose is to identify the influence of economic background of student on their academic performance in selected public secondary school. It is designed to compare the level of academic performance of student from different economic background. The study will give an insight into how and why some students perform better than other

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The study is designed to find out the influence of economic inequality on students performance in some selected public secondary school in Ovia North East Local Government Area of Edo State. The study will be of significant help to educate on how to handle students from different economic strata so as to increase performance.

It will also enable school administrators to see the need for providing books, news papers and magazines in the school library knowing fully well that in the some student may not have opportunity in their house. The study will also help the teacher in adjusting his or her method for effective teaching to accommodate every student.

THE SCOPE OF THE STUDY  

          The study will be used on selected public secondary schools in Ovia North East Local Government Area of Edo State for the purpose of convenience. The area being a semi-urban was chosen so as to involved children from various home backgrounds. The five schools. SSS two students were used for the study the study will only lower the economic aspect like the parents children in the family.

DEFINITION OF TERMS      

Economic Background: This refers to the earning power you have either high or low-income group.

Social Class: This is a level in the society where individuals regard themselves as equal either because of their education, occupation of because of the same pattern of living.

Three categories of economic status:

High economic status- people that earn N 7,000 and above per annum

Middle economic status: People with B. A., B. Sc and HND

Lower educational attainment: Anything below HND.

Small size family: A family with not more than 6 people i.e. the father, mother and then 4 children.

Educational facilities: Those things that make learning or instruction easy or simple. They are facilities for study like library, laboratory etc.

Performance of students: Below average anything below 45%, average, 45-69, above average-70 and above.

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