DESIGN AND IMPLEMENT A COMPUTER-BASED INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR THE NATIONAL POPULATION COMMISSION
Population census information system is at the centre of all population activities. Population census is the complete process of collecting, compiling, evaluating, analyzing and publishing demographic, economic and social data of all persons in a country or area at a specific time. To make a successful census exercise, the people for whom the arrangement has been made must properly be educate and fully informed about the arrangements.
In other words publicity, public enlightenment and education on the subject of census are unavoidable pre-conditions for a successful exercise. This duty though significant, is only additional to the National Population Commission (NPC). The commission can therefore not commit much of its resources to it, for cannot handle the assignment professionally the way the media do. This is because the most potent strategies and the technical format for effective publicity of any event belong to and remain with the media. What this suggests is that the NPC has no option but to evolve, nurture, cherish and sustain a cordial relationship between the media.
1.1 BRIEF HISTORY OF NATIONAL POPULATION COMMISSION (NPC).
The National Population Commission (NPC) has its based from Calabar from where it was called “Bureau of Population”. In 1988, it became imperative that Akwa Ibom was deed fit for it establishment. As at then, Mr. Isaac Udoukpong was the Head and as Acting Assistant Director, and as at this time, the commission office was located at No. 2 oku street in Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.
In 1990, the name “Bureau Of Population” was changed to National Population Commission (NPC) in preparation for the 1991 National Census Exercise. After the 1991 census, Mr. N. A. Nsudu took over as the state director. The present state Director is Mr. Benjamin Isaac Nda-Obong. Mr. Francis Mosses Ekpo is the Honorable Commissioner representing Akwa Ibom Satae at the board of the commission. He works here in Akwa Ibom state and also in Abuja. Mr. Mfoniso Umoden is the head of population management while Mrs. Mercy Darnley is the comptroller in NPC Uyo L.G.A office.
In November 2012, Chief Iheama Duru was appointed the chairman of National Population Commission. She has 37 commissioners working her, one from each state of the country and F.C.T inclusive. Finally, the office of the NPC is located at No. 15 Akpan Essien Lane in Uyo L.G.A of Akwa Ibom state.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In ancient days, National Population Commission (NPC) usually process their data or records manually, which makes the whole work so boring, delaying and cannot keep up-to-date records or data. Storage facility was too poor and cannot give a genuine and accurate result at the end of the exercise because they will be carrying data from one place to another. There is always a tendency for NPC to lose their records and data collected during the programmed and their result cannot be accurate or reliable at the end of the exercise.
Since this has been their problems before now, there is a way out before 2016 population census begins, which is to set up a competent computer for the storage of information gathered by designing a data base system for their used. This data base system will solve their problems of saving, retrieving, and compiling, keeping up-to-date data and for easy use in case of emergency need. Finally their staff has to be train on how to operate the propose system.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objective of this study is to design and implement a computer-based Information System for National population Commission that will assist in maintaining up-to-date and accurate information in the following areas:
(1) Determining the total number of persons in a particular area.
(2) Determining the gender composition, marital status and occupation of the population at different administrative divisions e.g
(i) Helping in individual identification
(ii) Knowing the level of literacy and illiteracy
(iii) Knowing the level of employed and unemployed
(3) To project for future needs and realistic future development.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Since Population census Information System is very important, especially with the proposed 2016 census that is up coming, the significance of this study is to assist in the following areas:
(1) EDUCATION: Data collection from population census will assist government in determining
(i) The number of people who can read and write.
(ii) The level of educational status for the literate.
(iii) The number of school age children who are presently not in school
(iv) The number of schools to be provided.
(2) HEALTH: Data collected will assist government at all-levels in planning for the information on
(i) Numbers of people and their health needs
(ii) The amount of money budgeted for health needs
(iii) The number of hospitals to be provided.
(3) ASSESSMENT OF DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS: Data collected will provide basis for evaluation of various development programs undertaken by the government.
(4) EMPLOYMENT: This will assist in establishing the levels of employment/unemployment for future planning and for job creation by providing the following information:
(i) Number of employed persons and type of work
(ii) Distribution of unemployed persons
(iii) Number of persons in schools that will require employment in the near future.
1.5 SCOPE AND LIMTATION OF THE STUDY
Since this topic population Census Information system is very wide, the scope of this research work is only on head counting and is within Uyo local Government Area with estimated villages under National Population Commission (NPC) uyo.
1.6 ORGANZATION OF THE STUDY
This project research is divided into five chapters: chapter one will provide the general introduction of the population census information system, statement of the problems, objectives, significance, scope/limitation of the study and definitions of terms used. Chapter two will consists of the review of the related literature. Chapter three will be system analysis and design, chapter four will be system testing and implementation. And chapter five will give the summary, recommendations and conclusion of the whole project.
1.7 DEFNITION OF TERMS USED IN THE STUDY
(1) For the purpose of clarity in this research project work, and to avoid any geographical area at a particular time.
(2) CENSUS: The source of the word “census” is from the verb ‘censere’ which means contrary to what is expected, not ‘to count’ but rather ‘to assess’ or ‘to estimate’ (The Encyclopedia American, 1951). Census is therefore the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population.
(3) POPULATION INFORMATION: It is an act and process of creating awareness, enlightenment and educating the general public in population activities methods (Ahmed Hameed NPC 1991 Analysis).
(4) SYSTEM: The term “system” originates from the Greek term systema, which means to “place together”. System is defined as a collection of related components that interact to perform a task in order to accomplish a goal.
(5) POPULATION DATA: Is the collection of facts and figures in relation to the demographic structures of a nation.
(6) ENUMERATION AREA DEMARCATION (EAD): Is the division of the entire land area of the country into small units that a pair of enumerators can conveniently cover within the period.
(7) COMPUTER: Is an electronic machine that can accept data, process data and generate a result.
(8) DEMOGRAPHIC: This is the statistical data of a population, especially those showing average age, income, education etc.
confusion on the use of words, the following terms is given definition.
(9) POPULATION: This refers to the total number of people living within a
REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE
This literature review is based on work of scholars has population census information system. Many books have been written on population census, how will it be conducted and explain why census is necessary.
Although numerous estimates of the Nigerian population were made during the colonial period, the first attempt at a nationwide census was during 1952-53. This attempt yielded a total population figure 31.6 million within the current boundaries of the country. This census has usually been considered an undercount for a number of reasons.
(1) Apprehension that the census was related to tax collection
(2) Political tension at the time in eastern Nigeria
(3) Logistical difficulties in reaching many remote areas
(4) Inadequate training of enumerators in some areas.
The extent of undercounting has been estimated at 10 percent or less, although accuracy probably varied among the regions. Despite its difficulties, the 1952-53 census has generally been seen as less problematic than any of its successors. Subsequent attempt to conduct a reliable post independence census have been mired in controversy, and only one has been officially accepted. The first attempt, in mid – 1962, was canceled after much controversy and allegations of over counting in many areas. A second attempt was officially accepted, also was encumbered with charges of inaccuracy and manipulation for regional and local political purposes. Indeed, the official 1963 figure of 55.6 million as total national population is consistent with a census of a decade earlier because it implies a virtually impossible annual growth rate of 5.8 percent.
In addition to likely inflation of the aggregate figure, significant intraregional anomalies emerge from a close comparison of the 1953 and 1963 figures. In portions of the Southeast, for example, the two sets of data imply that some nonurban local government areas (LGAs) had increased at a rate of almost 13 percent per year, while other neighboring areas experienced a minute growth rate of 0.5 percent per year. Despite the controversy, the results of the 1963 census were eventually accepted.
After the civil war of 1967-70, an attempt was made to hold a census in 1973, but the results were canceled in the face of repeated controversy. No subsequent nationwide census had been held as of 1990, although there have been various attempts to derive population estimates at a state or local level. Most official national population estimates are based on projections from the 1963 census.
The great improvements in transportation and accessibility, and in the level of education throughout the country, as well as the generalized acceptance of national coherence and legitimacy, favored the success of the fall 1991 census. It was to be conducted in about 250,000 enumeration areas by the National Population Commission, with offices in each of the country’s LGAs. To reduce possible controversy, religious and ethnic identification would be excluded from the census forms, and verification of state results would be handled by supervisors from outside the state. Some analysts believe that the effort to carry out a reliable census with perceived legitimacy might become an unexpectedly positive exercise, reinforcing a sense of shared nationhood and providing a model for the attempt to overcome regional and ethnic differences. ( Data as of June 1991, Sources: The Library of Congress Country Studies; CIA World Fact book ).
According to chief Samu’ila Danko Makama; former chairman National Population Commission (NPC). He explained that the commission mounted intense publicity for the 2006 population and housing census, and this went a long way to ensure its resounding success. In view of this, those who will be charged with the conduct of the future census should to at least sustain that level of publicity. The best means to achieve this aim is for the Public Affairs Department to be given enough funds and personnel to carry out its mission of spreading the census message to all corners of this country.
Census is necessary because information collected during a census is used to access the current welfare needs as well as to project future needs..