DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A BIOMETRIC STUDENTS’ TIME AND ATTENDANCE LOGGING SYSTEM


DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A BIOMETRIC STUDENTS’ TIME AND ATTENDANCE LOGGING SYSTEM

ABSTRACT:        

 In recent time, there has been high level of impersonation experienced on a daily basis in both private and public sectors, the ghost worker syndrome which has become a menace across all tiers of government, employers concerns over the levels of employee absence in their workforce and the difficulty in managing student attendance during lecture periods. Fingerprints are a form of biometric identification which is unique and does not change in one’s entire lifetime. This paper presents the biometric attendance logging system using fingerprint technology for Students in a university environment. It consists of two processes namely; enrolment and authentication. During enrolment, the fingerprint of the user is captured and its unique features extracted and stored in a database along with the users identity as a template for the subject. During authentication, the fingerprint of the user is captured again and the extracted features compared with the template in the database to determine a match before attendance is made. The fingerprint-based attendance management system was implemented with Arduino Framework for the Hardware and Firmware while Microsoft’s C# on the. NET framework was used for the User Interface and Microsoft’s Structured Query Language (SQL) Server 2005 as the backend database. The experimental result shows that the developed system is highly efficient in the verification of users fingerprint with an accuracy level of 97.4%. The average execution time for the developed system was 4.29 seconds as against 18.48 seconds for the existing system. Moreover, the result shows a well secured and reliable system capable of preventing impersonation.

Table of Contents

COVER PAGEi

DEDICATION ……………………………………ii

CERTIFICATION………………………………….iii

ACKNOWLEDGMENT………………………….iv

ABSTRACT ……………………………………v

TABLE OF CONTENT………………………..5

LIST OF FIGURE…………………………………9

LIST OF TABLES…………………………………10

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS…………………..11

CHAPTER 1………………………………………….12

INTRODUCTION……………………………………..12

1.1 BACKGROUND STUDY…………………….12

    1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVES………………….12

    1.3 PROJECT SCOPE………………………………..13

    1.4 OUTLINE OF REMAINING CHAPTERS……………13

CHAPTER 2……………………………….14

LITERATURE REVIEW…………………………14

    2.1 INTRODUCTION…………………………14

    2.2 REVIEW OF EXISTING SYSTEMS………………….14

    2.3 BRIEF REVIEW OF PRINCIPLE BEHIND THIS PROJECT…………….21

        2.3.1  REVIEW OF FINGERPRINT RECOGNITION TECHNOLOGY…………….22

        2.4 MINITIAE FEATURES……………………………….22

        2.4.1 FINGERPRINT SENSOR…………………………….23

        2.4.2 MATCHING ALGORITHMS…………………………25

        2.4.1 MICROCONTROLLER CIRCUIT……………………25

        2.4.1.1 ATMEGA 328P-PU…………………………….26

        2.4.1.2 CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR………………………….29

        2.4.1.3 RESISTOR………………………………31

        2.4.1.4 CAPACITORS……………………………32

    2.4.2 DISPLAY CIRCUIT………………………………………….32

        2.4.2.1 HITACHI HD44780 1602 LCD………………………33

        2.4.2.2 RGB LED…………………………………………35

    2.4.3 UART TO USB CIRCUIT…………………………………36

    2.4.4 FINGERPRINT MODULE……..………………….36

CHAPTER 3………………………………………………………38

METHODOLOGY AND SYSTEM DESIGN…………………………38

    3.1 METHODOLOGY……………………………………………38

    3.2 HARDWARE SYSTEM DESIGN………………………38

    3.3 HARDWARE FLOW CHART………………………………..40

    3.4 HARDWARE DESIGN CIRCUIT  DIAGRAM…………………..41

    3.5 CALCULATION AND CIRCUIT ANALYSIS…………………………41

        3.5.1 CALCULATION FOR OSCILLATOR RESONANT CAPACITOR VALUE………….42

        3.5.2 CALCULATION FOR CRYSTAL FREQUENCY……………………42

        3.5.3 LED RESISTOR CALCULATION……………………………43

    3.6 MODE OF OPERATION……………………………..43

CHAPTER 4………………………………………………………45

4.1 THE SYSTEM SOFTWARE……………………………………………….45

        4.1.1 SYSTEM ENGINEERING AND ANALYSIS……………………45

        4.1.2 SOFTWARE REQUIREMENT ANALYSIS……………………46

        4.1.3 THE DESIGN….…………………………………………46

    4.2 SOFTWARE FLOW CHART…………………………………47

    4.3 SOFTWARE IMPLEMENTATION……………………………..48

        4.3.1 HOME PAGE………………………………….48

        4.3.2 REPORT PAGE…………………………………………49

        4.3.3 STUDENT REGISTRATION PAGE……………………49

        4.3.4 ATTENDANCE PAGE……………………………..50

    CHAPTER 5………………………………………….52

CONSTRUCTION, TESTS, RESULTS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION…………………….52

    5.0 IMPLEMENTATION………………………………………52

        5.0.1 SIMULATION……………………………….52

        5.0.2 BREADBOARDING………………………52

        5.0.3 SOLDERING……………………………………….53

        5.0.4 SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT……………………………53

        5.0.5CASING AND ASSEMBLING…………………….53

    5.1 TESTS……………………………………………….53

    5.2 TEST RESULTS…………………..54

    5.3 COMMENTS………………………………….55

    5.4 COMPARISON WITH MANUAL ATTENDANCE ……………..55

    5.5 BILL OF ENGINEERING MEASUREMENT…………….57

    5.6 CONCLUSION……………………………57

    5.7 PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED………………58

    5.8 RECOMMENDATIONS…………………………58

REFERENCE………………………………………59

APPENDICE…………………………………………………61

LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE                TITLE                                PAGE

2.1                Communication Architecture of the NFC system            4

2.2(a)                        Touching a tag                    5

2.2(b)                Phones’ time doesn’t match terminal time            5

2.2(c)                        User arrives late                5

2.2(d)                        Sucessful login after                5

2.3                        System Architecture                6

2.4                Fingerprint recognition and authentication            7

2.5                    Iris recognition and Authentication            8

2.6                        Functioning of the system            10

3.1                        Block diagram                    15

3.2                        Atmega 328 circuit                16

3.3                        Atmega 328 pinouts                18

3.4                        Crystal Oscillator                21

3.5                        Ceramic Capacitor                23

3.6                        LCD display circuit                23

3.7                        RGB LED                    26

3.8                        UART to USB cable                27

3.9                        Overall circuit Diagram                28

3.10                    Resonant capacitor with crystal                29

4.1                        Modified Waterfall Model            31

4.2                        Flowchart of the system                33

4.3                        Login Form                    34

4.4                        Manage Student Data                34

5.0                    Graphical comparison of manual with Automatic     39

LIST OF TABLES

TABLE                        TITLE                       

4.1                Table showing percentage success/failure            37

4.2                Tabular comparison of manual and automatic system        39

4.3                    Bill of engineering measurement            40

ABBREVIATIONS

ASIC                 Application Specific Integrated Circuit

UART                Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter

UI                User Interface

USB                Universal Serial Bus

RAM                 Random Access Memory

ROM                 Read Only Memory

I/O                Input Output

DIP                  dual-inline package

TTL                Transistor Transistor Logic

EEPROM            Electrical Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory

ADC                Analog to Digital Converter

XTAL                Crystal

LED                Light Emitting  Diode

DDR                Data Direction Register

CTC                Clear Timer on Compare Match

LCD                Liquid Crystal Display

RGB                Red Green Blue

DSP                Digital Signal Processor

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1    BACKGROUND STUDY.

Every Nigerian university has the obligation to record and take student attendance during lecture periods every semester. The accuracy of this record of attendance have been marred by many challenging problems which ranges from the cumbersome nature of the paper sheets used in recording, manipulation of the attendance record by fraudulent students, emplacement of the attendance records after taking them and so on. It therefore becomes very difficult for the regular management and update of such records. Also the calculation of the percentage of attendance to ascertain the qualification of student to write a particular examination may not be achieved.

For the stated reasons, a biometric based attendance logging system is developed and designed to overcome the problems associated with the attendance system.

1.2    PROBLEM STATEMENT

As already stated, in most tertiary institutions, there is usually an outstanding rule that a student must achieve at least 70% class attendance before he or she is allowed to write semester examinations for the courses registered by the student.

The usual method employed by the lecturers is to capture the students’ attendance manually. This manual method of capturing students’ attendance is not accurate as most of the absentee students are usually covered up by their colleagues who normally sign attendance register on their behalf.

In order to have a more accurate record of students’ attendance, a system that can reduce or eliminate the problems associated with manual capturing is needed. In this project, the Fingerprint technology is to be deployed to capture students’ attendance in the class. The fingerprint device developed will be used to clock in the students at the beginning of lectures.

1.3    AIM AND OBJECTIVES

The aim of this project is to Design and Implement a Biometric Students’ Time and Attendance Logging System.

The objectives of the project are:

⦁    To develop a fingerprint students’ attendance capturing system and compare it with manual system.

⦁    To develop a software to store students’ database and attendance records.

1.4    PROJECT SCOPE

The scope of this work is to develop a software for fingerprint recognition and identification as well as database to store students’ information and attendance records using Visual c# and SQL server. The software will be integrated with a fingerprint Hardware designed with Arduino.

1.5    PROJECT SIGNIFICANCE

The system will help lecturers take accurate record of students’ attendance.

1.6    OUTLINE OF REMAINING CHAPTERS

This thesis contains five chapters. The second gives an overview of existing biometric attendance logging systems.

Chapter three is all about the methodology employed in the realization of this project.  It discusses the approach by which the aims and objectives of the project is achieved. Also it states the theories and calculations involved in the design analysis. Alongside the hardware implementation. Furthermore, the mode of operation of the proposed design is explained.

Chapter four describes the prototype’s software implementation.

Chapter five sets out the tests and results for analysis, simulations and experiment carried out. The bill and evaluation of material/components used is also outlined this chapter.

The conclusions will also be made in chapter five where the summary of the study is discussed.  In addition, problems encountered and recommendations for further designs are outlined in this chapter.   

 

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DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A BIOMETRIC STUDENTS’ TIME AND ATTENDANCE LOGGING SYSTEM



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