THE IMPACT OF ROAD NETWORK ON THE MARKETING OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCE IN NIGERIA
The aim of this study is to determine the impact of road transport network on the marketing of agricultural produce in the Igbo-Etiti local government area and Nsukka zone of Enugu state to identify other factors directly or indirectly to the marketing of agricultural produce in the zone.
The empirical aspect of this research was carried out using the survey method and questionnaire to obtain information from respondents in the 10 major towns, all drawn from the Nsukka zone. the high nature of the response was made possible because of the constant visit of the researcher to the respondents. Tables, percentages pie charts, and chi-square distribution were used as tools for presenting and analyzing the data collected. The result of this study indicated that the nature of the road network system in the Nsukka zone of Enugu State adversely affects the marketing of agricultural produce. It was found that the inaccessibility of farmers to produce. The researcher discovered that the prices of agricultural produce rise and fall as a result of transportation costs. Based on the research findings the researcher made the following recommendations. 1. That government should put the effort into improving the nature of road network in the states since it was observed that inaccessibility reduces the incentives to produce. 2. In planning for agriculture in a particular area, it becomes absolutely necessary that rural feeder roads are to be constructed to link such areas. 3. Food collection centers should be established in various rural areas, since transportation cost tends to increase the price of agricultural produce. 4. The provisions of farm equipment should be made available to the farmers and adequate storage facility should be well assessed to check against wastage and spoilage.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page Certification Dedication Acknowledgment Abstract Table of content Chapter one
Background of the study
Statement of the research problem
Objectives of study
Statement of hypothesis
Significance of study
Scope of study
Definition of terms
Chapter two Review of related literature 2.1 The nature of agricultural produce in Nigeria 2.2 The role of transportation in the marketing of agricultural produce 2.3 Factors that influence transportation in Igbo-Etiti 2.4 The nature of road network in Igbo-Etiti
The implication of road network in the marketing of agricultural produce in Igbo-Etiti.
Transport and improving agricultural production in Igbo-Etiti.
Chapter three Research methodology 3.1 Sources of data 3.2 Population of study 3.3 Determination of sample size 3.4 Sample procedure and design 3.5 Selection and construction of research instrument 3.6 Method of data analysis Chapter four
Presentation analysis and interpretation Presentation and analysis Testing of hypothesis
Chapter five Summary of findings, recommendations and conclusion 5.1 Summary of findings 5.2 Recommendations 5.3 Conclusion Bibliography
Introduction 1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY The quest to achieve self-sufficient food production is one of the highest priorities facing most of the world today. Nigeria in particular. This is also a problem that threatens to be worsening all year round. Food in Nigeria is critically dependent on transportation distribution, it then becomes obvious that a wide variety of Nigerian food would not be available without the complex transportation network system, which serves as a stem food industry. Farm produce therefore depends upon transportation facilities. Based on the above reason, the impact, as well as the importance of road the transport system, should not be overemphasized, especially as regards to agricultural produce. Problems relating to rural inaccessibility have contained to brother the world and in particular Nigeria Agriculture. It is on this note that the government and transport policymakers should intensify efforts to improve the transportation system especially in road network which is the main and the most popular mode of transportation in this country. Their collective and/or individual efforts should be directed towards fighting against hunger as well as in providing necessary transportation facilities and services and contribute to the instrument decision in related areas that can help to assume the supply of addition of food and its distribution to customers.
1.2 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM In the beginning agriculture and transportation are moving hand in hand. This product must be reasonably available and when produced must be distributed to ports and factories. Also that adequate transportation and efficient courier services operation are necessary condition the affecting and efficient transportation network and a cornerstone of the modern marketing system. Transportation thus serves as a means of moving goods, ideas, and information geared towards increased productivity. In Nigeria, roads constitute the most important infrastructure and territory of the sharp contrast in climate solid and vegetation which hinders agricultural progress. In some areas, most of the road which is essential for the evacuation of produce from the farmer to the market place is often inaccessible all year round. Most of these feeder roads are unsurfaced, narrow, poorly drained, and winding, they prevent easy access to the hinterland where the majority of the farmers are located. Even when such roads are in fair condition there is a problem of poor maintenance, lack of adequate execution capacity, lack of suitable materials, and management problems. All these factors attributed to the low agricultural produce in Igbo-Etiti. If agriculture will respond to the growing demand of the rural populace then it will be necessary to include a good rural structure with a road network to reduce the cost of the flow of agricultural commodities, information, and all sorts for rural services to enable it to contribute meaningfully to the general economic growth. This will help to accommodate the increased traffic flow of input and output moving from rural areas to urban centers, which will involve extra addition of maintaining rural road network.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY This includes: (a) To identify those factors that all directly and indirectly related to the marketing of agricultural produce and to what extent they have contributed to the use and fall of agricultural produce. (b) To determine the extent to which road transport system has affected the marketing of agricultural produce in Igbo-Etiti local government area. (c) To offer useful recommendation with a view to making the marketing of agricultural produce in Igbo-Etiti more successful and effective. (d) To determine the effect of the road network in the marketing of agricultural produces in Igbo-Etiti. (e) To determine the primitive use of farm tools to produce staple crops in large quantities that can be transported to other parts of the local government area.
1.4 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS Based on the stated objectives, this study will seek to base the impact of transportation on the marketing of agricultural produce with the following marketing mix variables which include the product, price, place (distribution) promotion.
Hypothesis 1 4.0 The high cost of transportation affects the prices of agricultural produce. 4.1 The high cost of transportation does not affect the price of agricultural produce in Igbo-Etiti. Hypothesis 2 4.0 The perishable nature of agricultural produce affect the marketing of agricultural produce in Igbo-Etiti local government area. 4.1 The perishable nature of agricultural produce does not affect the marketing of agricultural produce in the Igbo-Etiti local government.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY Increased interest in this study is due partly to the gainful and developmental input which agriculture can make to the economy and most importantly to the tremendous impact of transportation infrastructure on regional economics. This is because transport and development, as well as agriculture, are usually regarded as closely related since each of them influences the fortunes or the rate of growths of the other. The significance of this study is further highlighted. Considering that in Nigeria, the road is the only mode of transport by which all the states of the federation is linked especially with regard to the movement and distribution of agricultural produce from various rural areas of production to the different urban areas of the state for consumption. Finally, the study shall also serve as a stimulant or reference guide for further research in this area especially in the era of population explosion and impending food storage.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY In the Enugu state, most of the agricultural produce like (yam, rice, garri, cassava, tomatoes, pepper) and so on are produced in the villages located in remote towns. Because of differences in environmental factors such as climate, soil texture, topography, and so on. Some villages produce more or several types of agricultural products than others. Taking cognizance of the fact the study covers Igbo-Etiti.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS Product problem – production problem confronting the agricultural produce particularly in Igbo—Etiti has various structures such as technical socio-economic and organizational differences. (a) Technical problem – comprises of the following (i) Inadequate quantity and quality of farm input and farming implements. (ii) Low cost of agricultural technology and high illiteracy among the farmers. (iii) Inadequate infrastructural facilities for agricultural produce in the rural areas where the back of farmers live, the farmers are predominantly poor, there is a good road to xx their commodities to urban markets, no portable water and non-availability of electricity to make life comfortable. These vices make the youth to migrate to urban towns for green pastures, thereby living to farm for the very old also could produce just very little. (b) Socio-economic problem – comprises of the following: (i) High cost of agricultural production but the low rate of return from agricultural investments because of the associated risks and other costs. (ii) Low productivity of farm labor In spite of their high wage rate. (iii) The land xx system that does not encourage high production and productivity. (c) Organizational problem – The government had formulated a lot of policy on agriculture among which are (i) The operation feed the nation (OFN) (ii) Farm settlement scheme (iii) Green revolution (iv) National accelerated food development programme (v) Land use decree of 1978 (vi) Operation back to the land (vii) Food for all and school to programmes. These programmes were poorly formulated, executed controlled with no clear-cut and well-defined objectives from the onset. Most of the performances of government ministries, agencies, and states are conflicting confession and yielding no positive result due to poor planning, organizing, execution, coordinating and appraisal. The nations agricultural production problems would be solved by devising an entirety indigenous technique of increasing production efficiency peculiar to its land resources and personnel, skills, and management. State problem – problems encountered by the state could be attributed to inadequate overall planning and coordination at the state and national level. At present, the link between the state and federal ministry of agriculture we weak but plans as underway to increase the vital leadership role of the state and federal ministry and to provide better liaison between them. Shortages of qualified staff is a factor to which attention must be given. However, the biggest of all is economic farm prices are too low to an incentive to the farmers. Local government problem- a problem associated with rural or local government dwellers are the inadequate health facilities and bad sanitary conditions and child malnutrition is prevalent. Rural well-being requires more and better health facilities better systems of waste disposal improvement of water supplies and the introduction of health education and information on better feeding habits..