Reinforced concrete design is based on the assumption that concrete and steel reinforcement combines to create a new, composite material. Generally, the concrete is designed to carry the compressive loads while the reinforcing bar is designed to carry the tensile loads. There must be bond between the reinforcing bar and the concrete if it is to carry the tensile load and maintain equilibrium. However, bond between concrete and reinforcing bar is been affected by corrosion, a leading cause of structural failure. Reinforcing bar corrosion is a major concern in the world of concrete structures. It develops high pressure within the concrete causing the cracking and spilling of the concrete cover and the exposure of the reinforcing bar to further corrosion activity.

The Bond clause of the BS 8110 –1:1997 code is simply based on the compressive strength of concrete, a factor that could be expected to increase useable bond capacity. All other factors known to affect bond were not taken into consideration. The ACI 318 (2002) code took various factors like concrete cover, diameter of bar, lap length, transverse reinforcement, spacing, transverse steel strength and the cylinder strength into consideration but the environment was not considered. The Eurocode EN 1992–1–1: 2004 (E) took various factors affecting bond into consideration including the environment and a factor of 0.7 of the normal bond strength was recommended in aggressive environment.

A developing country like Nigeria can adopt any code of practice but local specifications must be written to compliment the adopted code. The lifespan and failure of structures especially reinforced structures has been of great concern to professionals and researchers in and out of the construction industry and over time, there has been a list of other factors that supposedly reduces the lifespan of structures or even possible failures. The environments where the reinforced structures are built affect the bond between concrete and steel reinforcement which in turn accelerates the performance loss of reinforced structures especially when reinforced concrete structures are located in aggressive environments, where they are exposed to corrosive fumes, sea water spray, abrasive actions, adverse weather conditions etc. hence an attempt to study the effect of the environment on bond between concrete and steel is desirable and worthwhile.

Not much work has been done on the effect of the environment on bond between concrete and steel reinforcement. This investigation is an attempt to generate data that can be used in developing local specification on bond between concrete and steel reinforcement in aggressive environments like coastal and industrial, to be able to justify the use or otherwise of the recommended reduction factor of 0.7 in the Eurocode or to be able to recommend appropriate reduction factor in severe environments.


The aim is to determine the effect of the environment on bond resistance between concrete and steel reinforcement. The objectives are to:

        i.            Generate data on bond between concrete and steel reinforcement exposed to different environments (Normal, Coastal and Industrial); and

      ii.            Compare the effect of each environment on the bond between the concrete and steel reinforcement.


Seventy-five (75) RILEM push-in specimens were cast. Twenty-five (25) specimens each were cast in the Normal, Coastal and Industrial environments, using 16mm high yield diameter bars in 160mm cube moulds. Three (3) control cubes were also cast to monitor the strength of concrete cast in each environment. All the materials used were exposed to the respective environment for fourteen (14) days. The RILEM specimens cast were cured in their respective environment for twenty-eight (28) days, and afterwards push-in tests were conducted to determine their bond resistances.


The results of this present study would enhance the writing of local specifications for bond in different environments.

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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper

    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

    Click here to complete this article - How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)


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