CHAPTER ONE 1.      Introduction General Background

There has been an increasing concern about the environment in which man lives. Solid wastes amounts of rubbish, garbage, and sewage are being produced every day by our urban society. Waste is anything that is no longer of use to the disposer. It can also be defined as any unavoidable material resulting from an activity that has no immediate economic demand and which must be disposed of (NISP 2003). In an attempt to dispose of these materials, man has carelessly polluted the environment. Waste is commonly classified into three. These are solid, liquid, and gaseous waste.

Solid wastes are residual from homes, businesses, and institutions. It refers to trash, garbage, rubbish, refuse, discards, and throwaways that are no longer relevant to the disposer. For example, broken bricks, broken glass and bottles can, plastics, paper, battery casings, plantain skin, and nylon (Adedibu, 1982). In a traditional underdeveloped world, a fact that partly reflects the sampling locations considered in the present work, household wastes are completely biodegradables and homogenous. Consequently, both biodegradable and non-biodegradable materials now constitute household wastes. In the past, men thought the environment has an infinite capacity to devour its waste without any ill effects. Recently, however, man’s health and welfare are being affected by environmental pollution. These pollutants are substances present naturally in the environment but when the released insignificant amount by humans, become toxic.

The world health organization (WHO) estimates that more than 20% of the world population (around 1.3 billion people) has no safe drinking water and that more than 40% of all populations lack adequate sanitation (Dastridge and Trent, 1999). Poor water quality is still a significant problem in many parts of the world. It can often limit the use of these vital resources and in more extreme cases can harm humans and other living species. Water can also be polluted by substances that dissolve in it or by solid particles and insoluble liquid droplets that become suspended in it (Plant et al; 2001)

The quality of water depends on its physical, chemical, and biological characteristics. Natural water contains impurities whereas pure distilled water has the principal composition of only hydrogen and oxygen. The quality desired for drinking usually needs treatment to bring it up to the desired water which must not contain disease-causing organisms. The impurities in water are usually due to impurities that are found in air, soil, and wastewater from communities and industries. The generation of solid waste from households industries, markets, abattoirs, and shops results in improving the standard of living of the inhabitants. These solid wastes can as well contaminate groundwater (Meadows, 1995). These leachates consist largely of solids, microbial organisms and in some situations, chemicals and shallow wells are more dangerously polluted (Meadows, 1995). This project presents findings on the effects of household wastes on ten wells and a stream sited within and around the Oke-Baale area in Osogbo Local Government especially those households close to the stream to determine the effects of household wastes on ground and surface water qualities. These wells also serve as sources of drinking water in Mosadoluwa Community, Oke-Baale in Osogbo Local Government. Three samples of the stream water at different points and ten wells were analyzed using physical, chemical, and biological parameters as indices.

Statement of the Problem

The problem of the study is the health hazard noticeable among the inhabitants of the study area due to the wells and surface water the inhabitants are drinking in the area.

Aims and Objectives of the Study

To evaluate the effects of solid waste (refuse dump) on the surface and underground water in Mosadoluwa Community in Osogbo Local Government To know the hazards of surface and underground water on the healthy living of the inhabitants in the study area.

Purpose of the Study

To determine the quality of the well water and stream water, the contaminant present, and their effects on people consuming the waters in different forms in the area.

Scope of the Study

This project work covers stream water and well water from Modadoluwa Community, Oke-Baale in Osogbo Local Government.

Limitation of the Study

This project work could not cover the entire Osogbo metropolis due to the following reasons.

Financial constraints Time constraints Mobility

Definition of Terms

HOUSEHOLD WASTES: Means wastes from households as well as other wastes which because of their nature or composition, is similar to waste from households. SURFACE WATER: Surface is the water collecting on the ground or in a stream, river, lakes, wetland e.t.c. UNDERGROUND WATER: Water located beneath the ground surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations. CONTAMINATION: Contamination is the presence of a minor and unwanted constituent (contaminants) in a material, in a physical body, in the natural environment. LEACHATE: A solution resulting from the leaching of soluble constituents from the soil, landfill e.t.c. BIODEGRADATION: Capable of being decomposed by bacteria or other living organisms. TOXIC: Contaminating or being poisonous material especially when capable of causing death or serious debilitation. POLLUTANT: Any substance or certain chemicals or waste products, that renders the air, soil, water, or other natural resources harmful. EFFECTS: This may refer to a result or change of something. IMPURITIES: Worthless material that should be removed.





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