This project, Design and production of ceiling board using Plaster of Paris (POP) Gypsum materials. Gypsum is basically the raw material required in the manufacturing Plaster of Paris (POP) which posses an outstanding property  and a good material for producing ceiling board.

The materials procured for the project are plaster of Paris, fiber, water and mould. The equipment used for the project are scrapper, measuring tape, mixing bowl, bucket. Firstly, water was poured into the container (mixing bowl) and plaster of Paris sprinkled, two minutes was waited for absorption and then the mortar was mixed with hand and shaked vigorously to obtain a fully homogeneous mixture and thereafter the mortar was sprayed on the mould and fiber was added which serves as reinforcement.

Water absorption test was carried out on the sample and the result indicated that plaster of Paris (POP) ceiling board has an average 8.4 percent water absorptivity compare to Asbestos with 0.5 percent. Therefore plaster of paris (POP) ceiling board absorb water readily in case there is water leakage of the roof. Flexural strength test was carried out and the result obtained showed that plaster of paris (POP) ceiling board has a mean flexural strength of 11.4 N/mm2 and Asbestos has an average flexural strength of about 1.00 N /mm2.

 To this end, it is proved that plaster of paris (POP) ceiling board posses sufficient strength and it is durable for Civil Engineering works.


Title page i

Certification ii

Dedication iii

Acknowledgement iv

Abstract v

Table of contents vi

List of plates ix

List of tables x


1.0 Introduction 1

1.1 Statement of problem 3

1.2 Aim and Objectives 3

1.3 Justification of study 3

1.4 Scope of the study 4


2.0 Literature Review 5

2.1 History of Gypsum 6

2.2 Old use of Gypsum 7

2.3 Modern use of Gypsum 8

2.4 Gypsum Credential 9

2.5 Gypsum product and its unique properties 10

2.5.1 Fire Resistance 10

2.5.2 Acoustic Properties 11

2.5.3 Thermal Properties 11

2.5.4 Aesthetics and Design 12

2.5.5 Sound Isolation Properties 12

2.6 Manufacture of plaster from Gypsum 12

2.7 Physical Properties of Gypsum 13

2.8 Chemical Properties of Gypsum 14

2.9 Survey on Hemp core fiber 14


3.0 Methodology 17

3.1 Procurement of Materials 17

3.2 Equipment used for the project 17

3.3 Preparation of Mould 17

3.4 Preparation of separator 18

3.5 Mixing of Aggregate 18

3.6 Casting 18

3.7 Demoulding 19

3.8 Water Absorption Test 19

3.9 Flexural Strength Test 20


4.0 Result and Discussion 21

4.1 Plates 21

4.2 Tables and Calculation 32


5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation 34

5.1 Conclusion 34

5.2 Recommendation 35



Plate 4.1 Mould used for the project 21

Plate 4.2 Application of separator 21

Plate 4.3 Mixing of Aggregate 22

Plate 4.4 Casting process 1 23

Plate 4.5 Casting process 2 24

Plate 4.6 Casting process 3 25

Plate 4.7 waiting for the sample to set 26

Plate 4.8 Demoulding 28

Plate 4.9 The Sample 30

Plate 4.10 Weighing of the sample 31


Table 4.1 Water Absorption test Result 32

Table 4.2 Flexural Strength test Result 33



This project deals with the design and production of ceiling board using POP gypsum materials. Plaster of Paris (POP) which is calcium sulphate with half molecule of water of crystallization (CaSO4.1/2H20)  and  hygroscopic characteristic obtained by duly  calcined the material that is Gypsum (CaSO4.2H20). It possess an outstanding property of setting and subsequent hardening when mixed with water (Smith, 1896).

Gypsum is basically the raw material require to manufacture Plaster of Paris. This is cleaned and washed for removal of impurities, dried in sunlight and then pulverized. Gypsum powder are calcined in a rotary drum calcinatory using light diesel oil/firewood/coal as fuel. The low pressure burner is sufficient to reach the calcinations temperature range from 160oc to 180oc.The process of calcinations is done over a period of about 2 hours so that one – halves molecule of water is removed to obtain the required properties after cooling, the calcined powder is passed through 150 mesh and packed in airtight polythene lined bags.

Modern Gypsum board has it predecessor a product called “sackett board”. A composite material that was made of layer of thin plaster placed between four piles of wool felt paper. Sackett board was  patented in 1894,  By  Augustine Sackett, The man generally considered to be the grandfather of gypsum board manufacturing industry.

Prior to 1894, Gypsum had been used for thousand of years as building material and as an architectural detailing element. The first use of gypsum in building construction appears to occurred in 3700BC, when an Egyptian used gypsum blocks and plaster applied over woven straw lath in the building of the pyramid of cheops.

A French chemist (Lavoiser, 1710), Analysed the chemical make up  of gypsum, his work and subsequent research by a group of his contemporary chemists coupled with the discovery and mining of huge reserve of gypsum near Paris leads to the wholesale use of plaster of Paris as a building material.

Plaster of Paris is extensively used in ceramics industry for preparation of models and moulds. It is also used as main raw material in the manufacture of toy and statues, chalk, crayon, gypsum plaster board and decorative picture frame besides wide range of application in interior decoration of building and other establishment (Alfred, 1896).

As there is growing building construction activities and advancement in technology, POP gypsum board are used in home and  offices  and  indeed  all  type of  building  where  people congregate such as schools, halls, churches, mosques, airports e.t.c.

POP gypsum ceiling board provides more aesthetic outlook, offer adequate resistance to heat and sufficient resistance to fire.


Recent  studies indicate that asbestos ceiling contains hazardous material from the health point of view. Prolonged inhalation of asbestos fiber can cause lung cancer, mesothelioma, asbestosis. Therefore it has been banned from use in many developed country due to the chrysotile content.

To this end, there is need for alternative ceiling material which is durable, reliable and affordable.


The aim of this project is to design and produce  ceiling board using POP gypsum materials

The objectives of the study is highlighted below :-

⦁ To produce durable lightweight building material for ceiling

⦁ To determine the strength of the ceiling board.

⦁ To determine it durability.

⦁ To determine the water absorption capacity.


The use of gypsum ceiling board for ceiling finishing should be adopted and improved because the problems associated with asbestos, which have been used as ceiling finishes for years but with the use of POP gypsum material as ceiling finishes which offers sufficient sound insulation and considerable absorption of heat from the roof and hence provide employment opportunity to the producer.


The scope and limitation of this project is basically the design and production of ceiling board using  POP  gypsum material. In this project, water absorption test and flexural strength test was carried out to determine the water capacity, strength and durability of the sample made up of composite quantity of POP plaster, water and fibre (villas) when subjected to loading.



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