This project work is concerned with assessment to different types of foundation and their mode of construction though looks like a literature review but entails full information and chosen.

Foundation samples were limited to three different locations within Ilorin metropolis. Terzaghi equation was used for determining soil bearing capacity of the three cohesionless soil samples taken.

The result obtained from the calculation shows that the soil in the three foundation Examined can resist any excessive settlement of super-structure load without excessive settlement of shear and it shows a good indication that the soil is good to be used as a sub grade or sub-base materials for construction.

In general the soil material in those three foundation posses similar characteristic.


Title Page ii

Declaration iii

Certification iv

Dedication v

Acknowledgement vi

Abstract vii

Table of Contents viii


1.0 Introduction 1

1.1 Aim and Objective of the Study 1

1.2 Objectives 1

1.3 Scope of the Study 2

1.4 Justification of the Study 2

1.5 Statement of the Problem 2

1.6 Methodology 3



2.0 Foundation in General 4

2.1 Design Requirement 4

2.2 Foundation Bearing Capacity Analysis 5

2.2.1 Type of Bearing Capacity 5

2.2.2 Presumed Bearing Value Table (Bs 8004: 1986) for 

Preliminary Design 5

2.3 Choice of Foundation 6

2.4 Factors Affecting the Choice of Foundation 6


3.0 Methodology & Type of Foundation 8

3.0.1 Pile Foundation 8

3.0.2 Pile Categories 10

3.0.3 Classification of Pile According to their Function 10

3.1 Classification of Pile According to their Composition or Material of 

Construction 11

3.2 Factor Influencing Choice of Pile 13


4.0 Result and Discussion 30

4.1 Foundation Requirement Strength and Stability of Foundation 31


5.0 Conclusion 37

5.1 Recommendation 38




One of the major needs of human being in life is shelter to protect man and their properties from some nature hazards. Such hazard may include rainfall, wind, snow, sun, e.t.c which may challenge the way of standard living which man propose. One of the most critical agenda that human being proposed about their wellbeing in the olden days is to have houses inform of huts where they can live after which civilization exhausted the mindset of human from staying in hut to a more conducive and mighty buildings.

The development of bricks and stone for the construction of building necessitate the need for foundation, though the type of foundation most appropriate for a given structure depend greatly on the type of soil, the soil properties, soil condition and the type of building intended to be built on it.

Foundation can thus be defined as the horizontal members supporting the entire structure and transmitting the load of the structure to the subsoil. Foundation in respect to soil may further be explained as the lowest part of a building which is situated below the ground level and it is satisfactorily design to transfer or permit load on it.



The aim of this study is to determine a compactable foundation type from a yielded soil bearing capacity to avoid settlement or shrinkage.


i. To say when and where each type of foundation in needed.

ii. To broaden the structural engineering knowledge on which type of foundation suits a certain structure so as to have a safe structure.

iii. To give information on all the types of foundation to allow the building safe from shrinkage or overturning.


For this project it is intended to state the various forms of foundation and how each type of the foundation discussed is being constructed, and determination of bearing capacity for some soil sample. Therefore the samples for testing were limited to three different locations in Ilorin metropolis.


The need for Assessment to different types of foundation and their mode of Construction is to provide adequate knowledge and information for the builder, structural engineer, and even the site engineer, as to which type of foundation will suits chosen site and mode of constructing such type of foundation.

As we all know that every type of structure starts with foundation and proper measure must be taken in order to achieve a firm foundation as it is going to be explained in a project work.


In Civil Engineering design, foundation is a necessary and it is the early stage of any building in construction, so special attention should be given to it since it is meant to transmit the load of the structure to the subsoil.

Although there are problem encountered in the construction of some types of foundation among which are:

i. For example in the construction of pile foundation the cast of machine and plant needed cannot be afforded by everyone because it’s too cost there is also risk in transporting the pre-cast pile to where it is needed and it may break or wound worker if not properly handled.

ii. Some type of foundation like cellular raft foundation and pile foundation requires experts

iii. Some area has a very loose soil properties and digging to hard stratum may be difficult, take time and energy.


The assessment of foundation and its construction involves a carefully examination, study and determination of the bearing capacity of the soil on which the proposed building will  be constructed and in most cases digging to a hard stratum prove futile, all these should be put into consideration.

Because the failure or collapse of most of structure starts from the foundation if not properly designed and constructed or if the supposed type of foundation is not used or wrongly chosen for such structure, for example in a place where pile foundation is used instead or in strip foundation where the depth of the footing is expected to be 150mm and 70mm is laid.

For cohesionless soil Terzaghi presented the bearing capacity expression below for general share failure.

qu= gDfNq + 0.4gBNg for square footing and qu= CNc + gDfNq + 0.5gBNg for Strip footing.

The Nc, Nq and Ng are general bearing capacity which depend on the foundation depth, shape and roughness and the angle of internal friction.



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