AN INVESTIGATION INTO WATER DEMAND AND DISTRIBUTION IN ILORIN WEST LOCAL GOVERNMENT (A CASE STUDY OF EGBEJILA)
This project work examined the water demand and supply in Egbejila area of Ilorin west local government, Kwara State. The three main users of water focused upon in the study area are residential, commercial (block industry, hair salon, food canteen) and agricultural water use. Also, the three main sources of water available to the users i.e. borehole, pipe borne water and well water supplies were investigated to determine the effectiveness of these sources of water in meeting up with the demands of the various group of users.
Questionnaires were administered to the users in which residential water use was the highest, followed by commercial and agriculture to determine their level of consumption of water and how their various sources of water have been able to meet up with the daily demands. It was determined that the three sources of water meet up with the daily demands of the various users in the study area. Although supply of water seems to meet up with the demand but more jobs have to be done by the ministry of works and water corporation on pipe borne water supply in term of its availability and repair of distribution system appurtenances ( i.e. various devices installed along the distribution system).
TABLE OF CONTENT
Content Page No
Title page i
Table of contents vii-viii
List of tables ix
1.0 Introduction 1-3
1.1 Statement of the problem 4
1.2 Aim and Objectives 4
1.3 Justification of the study 5
1.4 Scope and Limitation of the study 5
1.5 Description of the study area 6
1.6 Methodology 7
2.0 Literature Review 8-15
3.0 Methodology 16
3.1 Reconnaissance Survey 16
3.2 Water Situation in Egbejila 16-17
3.3 Sources of water Supply in Egbejila 17
3.4 Data Collection Instrument Used 17
3.5 Questionnaire Distributed 17-18
3.6 Oral Interview at Water Works 18
3.7 Limitation of the Methodology 18-19
3.8 Element of a Public Water Supply 19
3.9 Factors Affecting Use of Water 19
3.10 Characteristics of Population 19-20
3.11 Climatic Condition 20
3.12 Living Standard 20
3.13 Procedure for processing and analyzing data 21
4.0 Results and Discussion
4.1 Results 22-34
5.0 Conclusion and Recommendations
5.1 Conclusion 35-36
5.2 Recommendations 36
LIST OF TABLES
Table 4.1: Age group of respondents in egbejila
Table 4.1: Sample population of the respondents/each areas
Table 4.2: Water demand in each studied area
Table 4.3: Activities involving use of water in the studied areas
Table 4.4 Rate of water consumption per day
Table 4.5: Sources of water in studied areas
Table 4.6: Percentage analysis of the farmers in each area studied
Table 4.7: Type of farming activities in the studied areas
Table 4.8: Plots of land for farming activities
Table 4.9: Water demand for agricultural purpose
Table 4.10: Sources of water supply
Table 4.11: Commercial centres sampled in the studied area
Table 4.12: Rate of water demand from commercial centres
Water is a chemical substance with the chemical formula H2O. Its molecule contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms connected by covalent bonds. Water is a liquid at ambient conditions, but it often co-exists on earth with its solid state, ice, and gaseous state (water vapor or steam). Water covers 70.9% of the earth's surface, and is vital for all known forms of life on earth, it is found mostly in oceans and other large water bodies, with 1.6% of water below ground in aquifers and 0.001% in the air as vapor, clouds (formed of solid and liquid water particles suspended in air), and precipitation. Oceans hold 97% of surface water, glaciers and polar ice caps 2.4%, and other land surface water such as rivers, lakes and ponds 0.6%. A very small amount of the earth's water is contained within biological bodies and manufactured products.
The importance of water to man cannot be over emphasized. It holds the most important benefit to man’s sustenance besides shelter, food and clothing (Ajadi, 1996). It is recognized all over the world that water is a vital resource for human existence and it is a major factor in commanding the progress of civilization. Nigeria is experiencing an increase in the rate of change in population growth coupled with increased urbanization and living standards. Thus, the increasing needs for domestic water and other uses, places an increasing demand on its water resources.
Water is very vital, resources is not in short supply in Nigeria and Ilorin in particular, but regulating its availability and ensuring even distributions is always a serious problem, (sule, et al., 1999). However, the quantity of portable water available for human consumption has been receiving attention. Two extreme views have often been expressed regarding availability of water to man. One view believes that man is in his critical period in water consumption, and that demand is overtaking supply. The other view is that water is sufficiently available all the time everywhere worldwide. Both views may be acceptable in terms of water resources availability across the geographical space. For instance, Sule and Okeola(2010) studied the performance assessment of a regional water supply arrangement in Kwara State, Nigeria. Ghali, (1992), Glieck (1996), Sule et al.,(2000), Shabam and Sharman (1981) and Oyegun (1983) studied water resources development in Kwara State and found out that increasing urbanization, population and ineffective management of water resources have been leading to water crisis.
The conventional practices of planning, designing and managing water systems require regular reviews and adjustment. For effective service delivery, many studies have been carried out in area of water supply management in developing countries. In a study conducted by Akinola and Areola (1980) in Ibadan, Nigeria, the basic per capital consumption for planned residential areas was found out to be 89 liters per day; this demand is however suppressed because of intermittent pumping. Water consumption varies from one area to another depending on socio-economic standard of the people, the level of education and development, nature of prevailing climate, the hygienic characteristics of the people, level of provision of sanitation facilities and general sanitary habits of the people. However, it is generally agreed that a minimum of 501/c/d is needed by an individual to satisfy his basic needs irrespective of socio-cultural background. Ilorin like many other cities in Nigeria does not have accurate water demand and distribution data that could be used for the design and improvement of the water distribution system.
Water is not only a vital environmental factor to all forms of life, but it also has a great role to play in socio-economic development of human population. it was in recognition of this that the 34TH World Health Assembly in 1981 made a resolution emphasizing that safe drinking of water is a basic element of “Primary Health Care” which is the key to the attainment of health of citizens of the world.
1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Water is very important in mans day to day activities ,the use of water cannot be overlooked as it is used by both men and women, old and young.
The problems people in Ilorin west local government area faced will be critically looked into so as to investigate the causes and provide adequate solutions to the problems like:-
(1) Poor water storage infrastructure
(2) Poor piping network
(3) Topography of the area
(4) Vandalization of water network/distribution system
1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVES
The main aim of this study is to investigate into the demand and distribution of water in Ilorin west local government
The specific objectives are
(1) To determine the various sources of water available in the study area.
(ii) To examine the effectiveness of the various sources of water in meeting the needs of the various uses in the study area.
(iii) To look into the distribution of water in the study area.
1.3 JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY
It is important to recognize the significance of water and its fundamental contribution to sustainable development. Water has strong linkages to the three pillars of sustainable development – economic, social and environmental. Its main contribution to socio-economic. Well–being is through its use in agriculture. Water for food production can improve poor people’s livelihoods and economic well-being through irrigation, industrial use and power generation. To this end, it effective management is essential both to reduce the vulnerability of poor people and achieve environment sustainability- through sustainable levels of abstraction, the preservation of bio-diversity, water shed management and control of pollution (Foster, et. Al, 2000, Klein, 1996, World Bank 1992; Dinar, et. al, 1997).
1.4 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This study was confined to the Ilorin west local government and its environs in which the users of water were selected based on the various sources of water they make use of. This project work was limited to determining the efficiency of the various sources of water in meeting the demands of various consumers and provision of solution in cases where the demand exceeds the distribution.
1.5 DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY AREA
Ilorin west is a local government area in Kwara state, Nigeria. Its headquarters are in the town of oja oba. It has an area of 105km and a population of 364,666 at the 2006 census.
Asa river basin which lies within Asa and Ilorin west local government in kwara state is located at the boundary of the state at the southern part of the state and it is surrounded by Moro local government of the north, Oyun and Offa local government to the south and Ilorin west local government to the east. The study area lies between latitude 40 12’N and 40 29’N and longitudes 80 7’E and 80 42’E with an area of 5036.625km2
(1) Performed the reconnaissance survey of the study area.
Determination of the various sources of water in the area such as well, pipe borne water and bore hole.
Determination of various consumers of water in the area such as households, commercial/industrial in Ilorin west local government.
(3) Oral interview at water works.