EFFECTS OF SOLID WASTES ON THE QUALITY OF UNDERGROUND WATER

 EFFECTS OF SOLID WASTES ON THE QUALITY OF UNDERGROUND WATER  

ABSTRACT  

This research paper examines the effects of solid wastes, quality and its control on groundwater pollution in Ikirun (Maboreje and Okeafo areas) Osun state Nigeria. The study was born out of unregulated manner in which both domestic and industrial wastes are deposited on the streets, river courses, buried, burnt and discarded in refuse heaps. Solid waste commonly generated in Ikirun includes papers and polyethene, tin and metals, ashes and dust, texture and rags, aluminium and other minerals. The analysis of physical, chemical and biological of raw water at ten different locations in Ikirun close to dump areas shows these wastes produce leachates and gases when they are decomposed and are washed by percolating and infiltrating rain water into the groundwater. However, most of the water parameters tested fall within World Health Organisation  (W.H.O) recommendations while few are not. Inspite of this, recommendations are made to remedy the situations which include encouraging analysis of raw water, enlightenment campaign, groundwater exploration in Ikirun should be intensified and the principle of resource management should be adhered to.

TABLE OF CONTENTS  

TITLE PAGE CERTIFICATION DEDICATION ACKNOWLEDGEMENT TABLE OF CONTENT ABSTRACT

CHAPTER ONE 1.0     INTRODUCTION 1.1 PROBLEM OF THE STUDY  1.2 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY 1.3 OBJECTIVES   1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY 1.5 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY 1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS

CHAPTER TWO 2.0     LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 DEFINITION OF WASTES 2.2 SOURCES OF SOLD WASTES 2.3 COMMERCIAL AND INSTITUTIONAL WASTES 2.4 INDUSTRIAL SOLID WASTES 2.5 PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL HAZARD OF SOLID WASTES 2.6 WATER POLLUTION FROM SOLID WASTES 2.7 SOURCES OF WATER 2.8 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF WATER 2.9 EFFECT OF RAIN WATER ON UNDER GROUND WATER 2.10 COLOR DETERMINATIONS 2.11 TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLID WASTES (TSS) TOTAL DISSOIVED SOLID WASTES (TDS) 2.12 TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLID WASTES (TDS)  2.13 DISSOIVED OXYGEN (DO) 2.14 TYPE OF WASTES AND ITS CONSTITUENTS 2.15 SOLID WASTES EFFECT AND CONTROL ON UNDERGROUD WATER. 2.16 TREATMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF WASTES

CHAPTER THREE 3.0     RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 PHYSICAL OBSERVATION OF THE STUDY AREAS 3.2 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS

CHAPTER FOUR 4.0 DATA ANALYSIS 4.1 METHOD OF LABORATORY TESTS ON PH, TEMPERATURE, CONDUCTIVITY, ALKALINITY, TOTAL HARDNESS, CHLORINE AND BACTERIOLOGICAL TEST OF THE WATER SAMPLE. 4.2 DISCUSSION OF RESULTS

CHAPTER FIVE 5.0 SUMMARY 5.1 CONCLUSION 5.2 RECOMMENDATION 5.3 APPENDICES 5.4 REFERENCES

CHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTION1.0   This chapter introduces what solid wastes are all about including its quality and effects on underground water. Solid wastes commonly known as trashes or garbages are wastes consisting of everyday items we consume and discard. It predominantly includes food wastes, yard wastes, containers, product packaging, and other miscellaneous inorganic wastes from residential, commercial, institutional and industrial resources. While underground water is the water found beneath the soil.  Underground water occurs as a result of rain fall entering into the soil surface. It may also occur as a result of percolation from surface water into the soil. When rain falls to the ground, the water does stop, some flow along  the surface  to the streams or lakes, while  some are used by plants, some evaporate and return to the atmosphere while some sink into the ground . When pouring a glass of water into a pile of sand, it is obvious that the water will move into the space between particles of sand. Scientifically, groundwater is found in the cracks and spaces in the soil, sand and rock. It moves slowly through layers of soil, sand and rock called aquifers. Aquifers typically consist of gravel, sand, stone or fractured rock, like lime stone. These particles are permeable because the large connected spaces that allow water to flow through the speed at which ground water flows depends on the size of spaces in the soil or rock and how well the spaces are connected. The area where water full aquifer is called the saturated zone (or saturation zone). The top of the zone is called the water table. The water table may be located either a meter below the ground surface or it consists of thirty meter down . Groundwater can be found almost everywhere. The water table may be deep or shallow and may rise or fall depending on many factors. Heavy rains or melting snow can cause the water table to rise or heavy pumbing groundwater supplies may cause the water table to fall. Water in aquifers is brought to the surface naturally through spring can or be discharged into lakes or streams. Groundwater can also be extracted well drilled into aquifers. A well is a pipe in the ground that fuse with groundwater. The water can be brought to the surface by a pump. Some wells called artesian wells, do not need a pump because of natural pressure that forces water up and out of the well. Groundwater supplies are replenished or recharged by rain and snow melt. In some areas of the world, people face serious shortages of water because groundwater is used faster than it is naturally replenished or recharged. If ground becomes polluted, it will no longer be safe to drink.  Groundwater  is used for drinking water by more than 50% of the people. In the United States including almost everyone who lives in rural areas it is important for all of us to learn how to protect our  groundwater because of its importance as a source of water for drinking and irrigation. In other areas groundwater is polluted by human activities, in areas where material above the aquifer is permeable, pollutant can be easily sunk into the groundwater. Ground-water can be polluted by landfills, septic tanks, leaking underground gas tanks, and from over use of residual single and multi-dwellings, food wastes, wood, papers, cardboards, textile leather, yardwastes, wood, glass, metals, ashes, special wastes(e.g bulky items, tyres) and household are hazardous wastes. Industrial light and heavy manufacturing, fabrications, power and chemicals and plants, house keeping wastes, packaging, food wastes, construction and demolition materials, ashes are specials wastes. In other words wastes from hotels, restaurants, markets, office building( paper, card board, food, plastic, glass metals), institutional schools, hospitals, prisons, government centres, heavy and light manufacturing refineries, chemical plant, mineral extraction, industrial scrap materials, municipal services, street cleaning , land scraping, parks bleaching, recreational areas, water and wastes water management plant contribute immensely to the contamination of groundwater and they  are the most common sources of wastes generation. It is noted that solid wastes have a great effect on the quality of underground water as a result of percolation, infilteration, leachate and dis-integration of wastes material by the action of rainfall into the ground.   

1.1 PROBLEM OF THE STUDY The problem of solid wastes and its effect on the quality of underground water is now the focus of attention all over the world. The problem of waste generation in the country in the recent past had been quite tremendous, necessitating the need for this project. In fact, the presence of wastes scattered all over cities and towns and even in our institutions of higher learning is a threat to health and embarrassment to the pleasant standard expected of these areas. The menace of solid waste generation is most prominent in developed and industrialized countries; this is because complexity of generated waste is directly proportional to development in science and technology. Construction and operation of land filling material, recovery system, and incineration systems have become very costly. It is noteworthy that the urban populace generates more wastes than the rural areas. This is because of the various forms of commercial and industrial activities going on in cities and which have brought an increase in the volume and diversity of waste generated daily in the country.  These have some great effects on underground water consumption (borehole and well). It is therefore believed that in consumption of underground water such as bore hole and well water, certain tests are needed to be carried out before consumption in regulation with the principles of World Health Organization. These tests are:

PH Test Total caliform  test Test for nitrate [No3-N] Aerobic and sulphate reducing bacteria.

These tests are the most important tests carried out to know the physical, chemical and biological effects of solid wastes on underground water before it could be suitable for consumption. In additional, wastes are such items which people are required to discard. It can be defined as unavoidable material resulting from an activity which has no immediate economic demand and must be disposed off .Items such as household rubbish, sewage sludge, waste from manufacturing can give to a large variety of different wastes from different sources. Wastes are generated everyday in all parts of the world (Oluwande 1973). This mainly made up of waste coming from household , commercial activities ( e.g shops, restaurant, hospital), industry (e.g pharmaceutical companies, clothes manufacturers e.t.c), agriculture (slurry) construction and demolition projects, mining and quarrying activities and from the generation of energy . With such vast quantities of wastes being produced, It is of vital importance that it is managed in such a way that does not cause any harm to either human health or to the environment.1.2 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY (i) To know the physical, chemical and biological effect of solid wastes on underground water and determine the amount of wastes within the study areas. (ii) To determine whether the water pollutions have dangerous effect on the people and animals in the areas of study environment. 1.3 OBJECTIVES 1. To prevent all individuals, relevant organizations, researchers from drinking underground water that is very closed to dumping areas in order to avoid deadly diseases. 2. To inform the people on the hazard and result of wastes on their health from drinking underground water especially those that are very close to the dumping areas in other to prevent untimely death. 3. To educate people on the negative effects of water pollution on health1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY In Osun State, South West of Nigeria with thirty local governments, only one town was explored by the researcher. The town is Ikirun in Ifelodun local government. Ikirun is centrally located in Osun north east division of Osun State with latitude 7 degree, 50 feet north of equator and longtitude 4 degree, 40 feet east of  GreenWich meridian .It is bounded on the north by Inisa town in Odo-Oti local government area, on the south by Osogbo the Osun State capital to the east by Iragbiji town in Boripe local government, and to the West by Eko-Ende town also in Ifelodun local government. In this town different wells were examined both in dry season and rainy season especially those that are very close to the dumping areas. The difficulty encountered during the course of this project was my inabilities to perform some tests which are very expensive. This was due to the fact that it required  initial fund to carry them out. Examples of  such tests are aerobic and sulphate reducing bacteria test e.t.c.

1.5 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY There are some certain tests which should be performed, these are , Aerobic Test, Pathogen Screen Test, etc. But due to the time factor, money and some facilities which are needed but are not present at hand, these tests could not be carried by the researcher.

1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS 1. PERCOLATION: Percolation can be defined as the slow passage of a liquid through a filtrating medium. It is also known as the process of water seepage through the soil. 2. INFILTRATION: The process by which water on the ground surface enters the soil 3. LEACHATE: It is any liquid that in passing through matter, extracts, solutes, suspended solids or other components, of the material through which it has passed. 4. HAZARDOUS WASTES: These are wastes that poses substantial or potential threats to public health or environments 5. AQUIFERS: These are underground layers of porous rocks or sand that allow the movement of water between layers of non-porous rocks (sand stone, gravel or fractured lime stone or granite). 6. WASTE PREVENTION: It is the method of eliminating waste at source  and reducing the demand on natural or origin resources. 7. WASTE RE-USE: It is the method of using a waste product from one process as a raw material to form another. 8. WASTE RECYCLES: This is the method of breaking down the waste items into raw material.

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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper


    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

    Click here to complete this article - How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

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