EFFECT AND IMPLICATION OF FLUORIDE ON DRINKING WELL WATER

 EFFECT AND IMPLICATION OF FLUORIDE ON DRINKING WELL WATER  

ABSTRACT  

Analysis of well water sample was carried out using colorimetric method to determine the amount of fluoride in fifteen wells water samples in Iree metropolis of Boripe Local government area of Osun State, Nigeria. The problem of the study is that it was observed that some people living in the area of study are suffering from skeletal deformation and dental fluorosis. This necessitates the study of the fluoride content of the well water in the area.  The well water samples were selected in different parts of Iree metropolis which are; Small London Zone, off Campus Zone, B.H.S Zone, Oris Zone, Eyinade Zone, Oke-Aree Zone and Ladoja Zone. From the results, Small London Zone (Americal Embassy) has 1.0mg/L, (Harmony Garden) has 1.5mg/L and (Sugar Boys Hall) has 0.94mg/L, Off Campus Zone (Alternative Hall) has 0.75mg/L and (His Mercy Hall) has 1.0mg/L, B.H.S Zone (United Kingdom Hall) has 1.2mg/L and (David Liz Hostel) has 1.4mg/L, Oris Zone (Sobaloju Ayoni Hall) has 0.82mg/L, Eyinade Zone (Life International College) has 1.5mg/L, (Terminus  Hall) has 0.98mg/L and (Cotonou Villa) has 1.0mg/L, Oke-Aree Zone (Yakoyo Food Centre) has 1.5mg/L, (Innovated hall) has 1.0mg/L and Ladoja Zone ( Feel at Home Hall) has 1.0mg/L and (New world Phase 4) has 0.95mg/L. It was discovered that some of the well water did not meet up with World Health Organization’s (WHO) standard for the amount of fluoride that should be present in a given portable water which is 1.0-1.5mg/l. From the findings some wells meet the World Health Organization’s (WHO) standard in which some did not. Hence, people living in the study area should analyze their wells before drinking and there should be public enlightenment to this regard.

TABLE OF CONTENT TITLE PAGE                                                                     i CERTIFICATION                                                                               ii DEDICATION                                                                   iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT                                                            iv-v ABSTRACT                                                                       vi TABLE OF CONTENT                                                       vii-viiiCHAPTER ONE 1.0   INTRODUCTION                                                       1.1   General Background                                                        1.2   Statement of the problem                                        1.3   Aim and objectives of the study                                       1.4   Significance of the study                                                  1.5   Scope of the study                                                           1.6   Limitation of the study                                                     1.7   Definition of term                                                            

CHAPTER TWO 2.0   LITERATURE REVIEW                                             2.1      Definition of fluoride                                                     2.2      Forms in which fluoride exist                                               2.3   Uses of fluoride                                                                2.4      Health impact of fluoride                                              2.5      Fluoridation                                                          2.6      How effective is water fluoridation                                        2.7      Effect of fluoride on drinking well water                               2.8      Effects on teeth                                                             2.9     How does fluoride prevent tooth decays?                               2.10   Preventive Measure of Fluoride                                     

CHAPTER THREE           3.0   RESEARCH METHODOLOGY                                                         3.1      Water sample collection                                                        3.2      Methodology                                                        

CHAPTER FOUR 4.0RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS                                 4.1       Results of the Analysis                                                        4.2       Discussions                                                 4.3   How to normalize water that contains low level of fluoride in well water  4.4       Photographs of Water Samples and Some Equipment Used For Water Analysis                                                                   CHAPTER FIVE         5.0   CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS                      5.1      Conclusion                                                           5.2      Recommendations                                                                Reference

CHAPTER ONE1.0   INTRODUCTION

     General Background

     Fluoride is one of the very few chemicals that have been shown to cause significant effects in people through drinking-water. Fluoride has beneficial effects on teeth at low concentrations in drinking-water, but excessive exposure to fluoride in drinking-water, or in combination with exposure to fluoride from other sources, can give rise to a number of adverse effects. These range from mild dental fluorosis to crippling skeletal fluorosis as the level and period of exposure increases. Crippling skeletal fluorosis is a significant cause of morbidity in a number of regions of the world (J. Fawell, K. Bailey, J. Chilton, E. Dahi, L. Fewtrell and Y. Magara 2006). Fluoride is known to occur at elevated concentrations in a number of parts of the world and in such circumstances can have, and often has, a significant adverse impact on public health and well-being (J. Fawell, K. Bailey, J. Chilton, E. Dahi, L. Fewtrell and Y. Magara 2006). There is now a continuing process of updating the (GDWQ) Guideline for Drinking Water Quality, through which it was concluded that there was a need for a monograph on fluoride in drinking-water that would be useful to a wide range of individuals, including health workers and sanitary engineers who may require a broad introduction to the subject, but would still provide more detailed guidance in some specific areas. Such a monograph could provide an appropriate introduction and background information, and indicate where other more detailed information could be obtained. The primary focus of the monograph is  the prevention of adverse effects from excessive levels of fluoride in drinking-water. Fluoride is found in all natural waters at some concentration. Seawater typically contains about 1mg l–1 while rivers and lakes generally exhibit concentrations of less than 0.5 mg l–1. In groundwater, however, low or high concentrations of fluoride can occur, depending on the nature of the rocks and the occurrence of fluoride-bearing minerals. Concentrations in water are limited by fluorite solubility, so that in the presence of 40 mg l–1 calcium it should be limited to 3.1 mg l–1(Hem, 1989). It is the absence of calcium in solution which allows higher concentrations to be stable (Edmunds and Smedley, 1996). Iree town which is the focus of this project work has a very high tendency for the presence of fluoride in its ground water because of the geological nature of the area. Iree is a town surrounded by different rocks and the presence of this rock naturally leads to the presence of fluoride in all the well water in Iree metropolis. The problem that necessitated this project include dental fluorosis and skeletal deformation in some people living in Iree metropolis. This project is to determine the effect and implication of fluoride on drinking well water in some areas in Iree community of Osun state, Nigeria.

      Statement Of The Problem

        The problem of the study is the health hazard noticeable among the inhabitants of the study areas such as dental fluorosis and skeletal deformation which may be traceable to the amount of fluoride in well water.

     Aims And Objectives Of The Study

To know the required dosage of fluoride needed in drinking well water. To know the health implications of the amount of fluoride in drinking well water in Iree metropolis.

    Significance of The Study

Fluoride has beneficial effects on teeth at low concentrations in drinking-water, but excessive exposure to fluoride in drinking-water, or in combination with exposure to fluoride from other sources, can give rise to a number of adverse effects such as Dental fluorosis, and skeletal deformation.

        1.5      Scope of the Study This project work covers well water from Off-campus, Ladoja, Oke Aare, Small London, Oris, B.H.S, and Eyinade area of Iree metropolis.

1.6     Limitation of the Study The project work could not cover the entire iree community for the following reason

Financial constraints. Mobility. Time constraints.  Lack of accessibility in some areas. Definition Of Terms

EFFECT: This may refer to a result or change of something. IMPLICATION: This is the conclusion that can be drawn from something, although it is not explicitly stated. GDWQ: This is the acronym of Guideline for Drinking Water Quality. FLOUROSIS: This is a condition due to the ingestion of excess amount of fluorine. FLOURIDE: Fluoride is the anion of fluorine, it is also the reduced formed of fluorine. FUMAROLIC GASES: This is a vent in the surface of the Earth from which hot smoke and gases escape. FLUORIDATION: This is the controlled addition of fluoride to a public water supply to reduce tooth decay. DENTAL FLUOROSIS: This is a change in the appearance of the tooth’s enamel. ENDEMIC: This means a disease occurs frequently and at a predictable rate in a specific location or population. ENAMEL: This is a vitreous, usually opaque, protective or decorative coating baked on metal, glass, or ceramic.

Project Topics   Project Topics and Materials   

.

Click Here To Get The Complete Project »

How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper


    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

    Click here to complete this article - How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

TESTIMONIES FROM OUR CLIENTS


Please feel free to carefully review some written and captured responses from our satisfied clients.

  • "I love what you guys are doing, your material guided me well through my research. Thank you for helping me achieve academic success."

    Sampson, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • "researchwap.com is God-sent! I got good grades in my seminar and project with the help of your service, thank you soooooo much."

    Cynthia, Akwa Ibom State University .
  • "Sorry, it was in my spam folder all along, I should have looked it up properly first. Please keep up the good work, your team is quite commited. Am grateful...I will certainly refer my friends too."

    Elizabeth, Obafemi Awolowo University
  • "Am happy the defense went well, thanks to your articles. I may not be able to express how grateful I am for all your assistance, but on my honour, I owe you guys a good number of referrals. Thank you once again."

    Ali Olanrewaju, Lagos State University.
  • "My Dear Researchwap, initially I never believed one can actually do honest business transactions with Nigerians online until i stumbled into your website. You have broken a new legacy of record as far as am concerned. Keep up the good work!"

    Willie Ekereobong, University of Port Harcourt.
  • "WOW, SO IT'S TRUE??!! I can't believe I got this quality work for just 3k...I thought it was scam ooo. I wouldn't mind if it goes for over 5k, its worth it. Thank you!"

    Theressa, Igbinedion University.
  • "I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much researchwap.com, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...."

    Joseph, Abia state Polytechnic.
  • "My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about researchwap.com, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"

    Christiana, Landmark University .
  • "I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!."

    Musa, Federal University of Technology Minna
  • "I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!."

    Ali Obafemi, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Niger State.
  • To contribute to our success story, send us a feedback or please kindly call 2348037664978.
    Then your comment and contact will be published here also with your consent.

    Thank you for choosing researchwap.com.