THE EFFECT OF VEGETABLE OIL BIODIESEL ON THE TISSUES OF AN ALBINO-RAT (RATTUS NOVERGICUS)

THE EFFECT OF VEGETABLE OIL BIODIESEL ON THE TISSUES OF AN ALBINO-RAT (RATTUS NOVERGICUS)

CHAPTER ONE     1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the study  

Worldwide petroleum-based energy resources are being depleted – onshore crude oil production peaked decades ago but our demands for petroleum are still going up (McCarthy, et al.2011). The United States’ continued dependency on imported petroleum, particularly from the Middle East, has become an important national security issue (John, et al.1998). Competition for global energy supply from emerging economic powers such as China and India has added to the urgency for searching and developing alternative energy sources that help us reduce our dependency on imported oil. Lastly, environmental concerns such as pollution and global climate changes provide further motivation to address the energy challenge that we face today (Fazal,et al.2011).

Biofuels, which are fuels derived from biomass such as vegetable oil, corn, soybeans, sunflowers, algae, wood chips, etc., are ideally suited for meeting the future energy challenges because they do not add to global climate changes. This is attributed to the fact that plants use CO2 to grow during the photosynthesis process; consequently, the CO2 formed during combustion of biofuels is balanced by that absorbed during the annual growth of plants used as the biomass feedstock (Karavalakisand Bakeas 2010). Another key advantage of biofuels over other alternative energy sources is that they can be burned (either alone or mixed with petroleum-derived gasoline) in existing internal combustion engines (Knothe, 2010). Moreover, we can utilize current infrastructure such as pipelines, delivery trucks, and fueling stations to transport and distribute biofuels.

This report focused on the production of biodiesel (which is an important biofuel) from vegetable oils. With the conventional technology, vegetable oil mixed with alcohol (e.g., ethanol) reacts in large-scale batch reactors and in the presence of an alkaline liquid catalyst (e.g., NaOH or KOH) to form methyl esters or biodiesel and glycerol or glycerine. The transesterification reaction can take up to 12 hours or longer to complete; and at the end of the reaction, it is necessary to use an acid to neutralize the liquid catalyst and to separate biodiesel and glycerol from the product mixture. Apart from the increased costs in their separation and recovery after the transesterification reaction, the alkaline catalysts are corrosive to the equipment and will readily react with free fatty acids to form soaps, an undesired byproduct. It is therefore of interest to explore alternative approaches to the production of biodiesel from vegetable oils, which can raise production efficiency and lower production costs (William, 2010).

1.2              Scope of the study

This study evaluates the effect of combustible flames of biodiesel on growth and haematological properties of rats exposed to it over a period of ten days. This study will as well be used as a reference material for further investigation into the toxic effect of vegetable-oil-biodiesel on all living things, as well as evaluation of other areas of toxicity.

1.3 Aimof the study

The aim of this study is to clarify whether the smoke generated from biodiesel will have any toxic effectan albino-rat.

1.4Objective of the study

The objective of this investigation is to study the effect of vegetable oil biodiesel on the tissues of an albino-rat (Rattus novergicus) such as blood, serum, heart, lung and liver; with emphasis on the following areas of interest such as:

The extraction of biodiesel as an alternative to the use of conventional diesel in automobile engine operation. Analyzing the extracted biodiesel and fuel diesel used in making the blends. To determine the toxicological effect of smoke from various blends of biodieselon growth and haematological properties of rats exposed to it over a period of ten days.

1.5Relevance of study

This study serves as a platform for determining the quality of different diesel grades based on their toxicity level and risk to health, so as to secure environmental benefits and promote sustainable development. 

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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper


    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

    Click here to complete this article - How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

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