PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING, ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY AND ANTIMALARIAL ACTIVITIES OF UNRIPE COCONUT FLUID


PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING, ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY AND ANTIMALARIAL ACTIVITIES OF UNRIPE COCONUT FLUID  

ABSTRACT

The phytochemical, antioxidant, antimicrobial and antimalarial activities of the fluid inside an unripe coconut fluid were investigated and at the end of the day, the phytochemicals were found to be terpenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins and saponins and the percentage composition of these classes of compounds were also determined. This component of an unripe coconut had fluid which is very effective in destroying malaria parasites in the same way the strength showed on the organism by the control drug which is Atesurnate. The antioxidant capacity of the fluid was also determined vis-à-vis and they were interestingly good results.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page i

Certification iii

Dedication iv

Acknowledgement v

Abstract vi

Table of Contents vii

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction1

Natural products and medicinal chemistry1

Statement of problem2

Objectives of study2

Justification of study3

CHAPTER TWO

Review of Related Literature4

Phytochemical analysis of unripe coconut fluid4

Alkaloids4

Classification of alkaloids5

Properties6

Tannins6

Structure of tannins7

Classification of tannins8

Terpenoids10

Structure of terpenoids10

Flavanoids18

2.1.4 Saponins 25

Phytohormones present coconut fluid26

Auxin26

Cytokinins27

Gibberellins28

Nutritional benefits of unripe coconut fluid28

Natural products with antimalarial activities30

Structures of some established antimalarial drugs30

CHAPTER THREE

Experimental Section32

Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical screening of unripe coconut

Fluid 32

Qualitative phytochemical screening test32

Test for tepernoids32

Test for flavonoids32

Test for alkaloids33

Test for tannins33

Test for saponins34

Quantitative phytochemical screening test34

Terpenoids34

Flavonoids34

Alkaloids34

Tannins35

Saponins35

Antimicrobial screening test35

Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) testing36

Acute toxicity screening test37

Innoculation of the parasitaemia37

Determination of malaria parasite (MP+)38

Determination   of antioxidant activities38

Determination of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD)38

Determination of vitamin C39

Determination of vitamin E40

Haematological test40

Determination of total white blood cell count40

Determination of total red blood cell count41

Determination of haemoglobin concentration41

Liver function test41

Determination of the aspartate aminotransferase activity42

Determination of the alanine transaminase activity42

Determination of total bilirubin43

The kidney function test activity43

Determination of urea44

Determination of uric acid44

Determination of acid phosphatase45

Determination of creatinine45

Determination of trace elements45

Serum chloride determination45

Serum sodium determination46

Serum potassium determination46

Serum zinc determination47

CHAPTER FOUR

Results and discussion48

Results of phytochemical screening of unripe coconut fluid49

Results of antimicrobial activity50

Result of acute toxicity test (LD50)51

Result of percentage parasitaemia52

Results of antioxidant activities53

Results of haematological test56

Results of liver function test activities59

Results of kidney function test activities61

Results of trace element determination63

CHAPTER FIVE 66

5.0 Conclusion 67

References

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: Qualitative phytochemical screening of unripe coconut fluid 48

Table 2: Quantitative Phytochemical Screening of unripe coconut fluid 49

Table 3: Antimicrobial Sensitivity Testing of the unripe coconut fluid 50

Table 4: Inhibition Zones Diameter (mm) 50

Table 5: Acute toxicity result table 51

Table 6: 4days after inoculation of malaria parasite 52

Table 7: 7days treatment of malaria parasite 52

Table 8: Determination of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) 54

Table 9: Determination of vitamin E 55

Table 10: Determination of vitamin C 55

Table 11: Determination of Total White Blood cell count 56

Table 12: Determination of Total Red Blood cell Count 57

Table 13: Determination of Haemoglobin Concentration 58

Table 14: Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) Activity 59

Table 15: Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) Activity 59

Table 16: Determination of total bilirubin 60

Table 17: Determination of Creatinine 61

Table 18: Determination of Urea 61

Table 19: Determination of Uric acid 62

Table 20: Determination of Acid phosphate 62

Table 21: Serum Potassium determination 63

Table 22: Serum Sodium determination 64

Table 23: Serum Chloride determination 64

Table 24: Serum Zinc determination 65

LIST OF FIGURES

Fig 1: UV-Visible spectral of unripe coconut fluid

Fig 2: FTIR spectral of unripe coconut fluid

ABBREVIATIONS

EDTA Ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid

MIC Minimum inhibitory concentration

UC Untreated control

SC Standard control

NC Normal control

NST No sign of toxicity

ND No death

GV Gential violet

HB Haemoglobin

ALT Alanine transaminase

AST Aspartate aminoferase

ACP Acid phosphatase

SOD Superoxide dismutase

SDA Saboround dextrose agar

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

NATURAL PRODUCTS AND MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY

A natural product is a chemical compound or a substance produced by a living organism that is found in nature1.Within the field of organic chemistry, the definition of natural products is usually restricted to mean purified organic compounds isolated from natural sources.2 Natural products sometimes have pharmacological or biological activity that can be of therapeutic benefit in treating diseases. As such, natural products are active components not only for most traditional medicines but also for many modern medicines.3

A significant number of anti-infectives are based on natural products. The first antibiotic to be discovered is Penicillin [1].

R NH O

O

H

ImageS

CH3

N CH3

O

HO

1

A large number of currently prescribed drugs have been directly derived from natural products. For example the bark of the Willow tree has been known from antiquity to have pain relieving properties4; this is due to the presence of the natural product salicin [2] which in turn may be hydrolyzed to salicylic acid [3], a synthetic derivative acetylsalicylic acid [4] better known as aspirin widely usedas a pain reliever was obtained when salicylic acid is treated with acetic anhydride (scheme 1)

HO

O

O

O

HO

OH

HO O

OH OH

O CH3

hydrolysis

acetic anhydri

conc H SO O

2 4

OH

H3C

O

de

2 3 4

Scheme 1

Unripe coconut fluid is one of the world’s most versatile natural products with increasing scientific evidence that support its role in health and medicinal application. Unripe coconut fluid is the liquid endosperm of immature coconut. The drink is extracted from immature coconut, which implies it has not yet accumulated fat and has low sugar content5. The sugar and protein contents increase as the coconut matures. It is recommended for weight loss phases because it increases the rate of metabolism. Unripe coconut fluid is a hydrating drink, a natural isotonic drink, a universal donor which can be used in blood transfusion because it has the same salt concentration as cells and blood.6

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Despite the use of the various parts of coconut palm in herbal medicine, reports on antimalarial activities, antioxidant capacity and phytochemical screening of unripe coconut water are rather scanty. Hence it is imperative to examine its antimalarial activities, its antioxidant capacity in blood serum and the phytochemicals in unripe coconut water.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The specific objectives of this study are:

i) to determine the antimalarial activities of the unripe coconut water

ii) qualitative and quantitative phytochemical screening of unripe coconut water.

iii) to determine its antimicrobial activities

iv) to determine itsacute toxicity (LD50)

v) to determine hematological assay.

vi) to determine the antioxidant capacity of the unripe coconut water in the blood serum and

vii) to determine the effect of the unripe coconut water in the body organs (Liver and kidney).

JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY

The wide applications of unripe coconut water especially in medical fields can be justified by its unique chemical composition of sugar, vitamins, minerals, amino acids, antioxidants, phytochemicals and phytohormones4,7. For example Vitamin E is an important antioxidant that protects unsaturated oil from being destroyed in the body by oxygen. It is also a potent water- soluble antioxidant in humans and most flavonoids have antioxidant properties8. This antioxidant blocks some of the damage caused by free radicals and substances that damage DNA9. Some alkaloids and terpenoids have antimalarial activities.10

.

PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING, ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY AND ANTIMALARIAL ACTIVITIES OF UNRIPE COCONUT FLUID



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