AN ASSESSMENT OF TEACHERS’ KNOWLEDGE OF TEST CONSTRUCTION PROCEDURE IN CHEMISTRY OBJECTIVE TEST IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS

AN ASSESSMENT OF TEACHERS’ KNOWLEDGE OF TEST CONSTRUCTION PROCEDURE IN CHEMISTRY OBJECTIVE TEST IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS  

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY  

Testing has always been an integral part of the educational system since its inception.  The concept (testing) can be viewed as a set of tasks presented to a person, the performance of which depends on the possession of a particular body of knowledge and skill.  The emphasis being laid on continuous assessment in Nigeria’s educational system has therefore given a boost to the testing system in our educational institutions.  The National Policy on Education (2004) emphasizes the importance of continuous assessment by stating that “Educational Assessment and Evaluation will be liberalized by basing them in whole or in part on continuous assessment of the progress of the individual”.  This implies that teachers should assess both the entry and terminal behaviour of the students in the subject being taught as this will reveal the progress made by the individual student during the course. Continuous assessment has been presented as a revolutionary approach to assessment (Yoloye, 1984), (Firth and Macintosh, 1984) and (Ughanadu, 1994).  They claim that, continuous assessment is a more valid form of assessment than conventional examination or traditional assessment method.  The superiority of continuous assessment is based on the fact that, continuous assessment can sample a much wider range of skills and abilities inherent in a course of study.  Continuous assessment in many respects offers a challenge to both the learner and the teacher of science. A Federal Ministry of Education Handbook (1980) portrays continuous assessment as a method of finding out what the students have gained from the learning experiences with respect to knowledge, thinking, reasoning, character development, industry, etc.  Science subjects and chemistry in particular, like many of the educational disciplines, provide unique opportunities for the application of continuous assessment.  There are three major areas (components) of any science subject which lend themselves to assessment: cognitive (theoretical) aspects; psychomotor (manipulative) aspects and affective (attitude) aspects. With the advent of continuous assessment, there has been an increasing need of classroom teachers to prepare and administer tests in order to obtain certain vital information about what has been done during the teaching – learning process.  In this regard therefore, testing can be used as a teaching instrument and as an instrument of assessment.  These purposes are essential in the teaching of chemistry.  When used as a teaching instrument, the outcome of a testing exercise provides a quick feedback on what learning has taken place in the classroom.  As an aid to teaching, testing finds out problems with teaching strategies adopted, or detects weaknesses and strengths of the students taught.  In this instance, testing serves a diagnostic function. As an instrument of assessment, a test measures achievement, predicts performances and aids in selection exercises.  Testing therefore, provides useful information for decision making about students, teachers and the programme. For ascertaining the gains of the instruction process, achievement tests are administered by teachers.  These according to Ughamadu, Onwuegbu and Osunde (1991) are tests that measure the extent to which a person has acquired certain information, mastered certain skills, usually as a result of specific instruction.  In most of our schools, teachers set and administer most of these tests in the bid to find out how much their students have gained in the course of their instructions.  These tests are in most cases not scrutinized for validity and reliability which are the most incompromisable requirements for a good test.  According to Osunde (2000) “Teacher – made tests are generally deficient in numerous ways.  The most common fault is related to ineffective communication”.

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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper


    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

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