SCREENING OF PROXIMATE CONSTITUENTS OF THE LEAF EXTRACTS OF SIMAROUBA GLAUCA WHICH INCLUDES MOISTURE, PROTEIN, CARBOHYDRATES, ASH FIBRE AND LIPID CONTENT OF SIMAROUBA GLAUCA

  SCREENING OF PROXIMATE CONSTITUENTS OF THE LEAF EXTRACTS OF SIMAROUBA GLAUCA WHICH INCLUDES MOISTURE, PROTEIN, CARBOHYDRATES, ASH FIBRE AND LIPID CONTENT OF SIMAROUBA GLAUCA

CHAPTER ONE  

1.1 INTRODUCTION  

Plants undergo photosynthesis and they constitute a primary resource of carbon, vitamins, minerals, protein, essential fatty acids, and utilizable energy for food production (Young and Pelett, 1994). Plants have played a significant role in maintaining the health and improving the quality of human life for thousands of years. (Mishra, 2010).  They provide a major source of food and nourishment for man and animal.

Nutrition is a science of food and its relationship to health. Nutrition refers to nourishment that sustains life. The study of nutrient requirements and the diet providing these requirements is also known as ‘nutrition’ (Chutani, 2008). Pike and Brown, 1984 defined it as “the science that interprets the relationship of food to the functioning of living organism. It includes the uptake of food, liberation of energy, elimination of wastes and all the processes of synthesis essential for maintenance, growth and reproduction (Chutani, 2008).  Apart from maintaining normal body functioning, nutrition is important in fighting infections and in the recuperation of an ill person. Nutrition interacts with infections in a synergistic manner, such that recurrent infections lead to a loss of body nitrogen and worsen nutritional status; theresulting malnutrition, in its turn, produces a greater susceptibility to infection (Kurpad, 2005). Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) was the first to suggest that the composition of foods in the normal diet might contribute to health.

In an 1897 literature on metabolic investigations, Atwater divided food composition into five classes; protein, fat carbohydrate, energy and water. However, today, proximate composition is the term usually used to describe six components of food namely; moisture, crude protein, crude ash,crude fibre, crude fat and carbohydrate (nitrogen free extract) which are all expressed in percentage (%) or gram per 100 grams (g/100g). The study of proximate analysis on foods was devised over a hundred years ago by two German scientists, Henneberg and Stohmann, and even though new techniques have been introduced, their system of proximate still forms the basis for the statutory declaration of the composition of foods. (Dublecz, 2011).

1.2 MOISTURE CONTENT

Water is essential for every living organism. In the human body, water content ranges from 50- 70% in different tissues. It is present in different fluid compartments of the human body- Intracellular (fluid inside the cells) and extra cellular. Plasma, interstitial fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, ocular fluid, lymph, peritoneal, pericardial, pleural and synovial fluids are part of the extra cellular fluid (Chutani, 2008).  However, the moisture content of a feed is seldom of interest nutritionally as water is usually taken on its own.

The active ingredients from the view of feed nutrition are present in the part of dry matter (solid matter); therefore the level of moisture content is an important factor in both economy and storage (Famic).  At high temperature and humidity  the risk of putrefaction is predicted due to the proliferation of molds, etc., or self-digestion by enzymes in the feed when moisture in the feed is not less than about 15 %.  As the assay for moisture in the feed measures loss on drying by heating at normal pressure as moisture, the result includes most of volatile substances other than H2O.  Therefore, it may be more appropriate to be referred to as volatile matter rather than moisture for accuracy.  Organic acids such as acetic acid and butyric acid in silage as well as ammonia and flavor components in feed materials are also vaporized and thus measured as moisture.  Because the content of these in most feed is extremely low, there has hardly been a need to consider their influence on the measured value. (Famic)

1.3 CARBOHYDRATES

Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy from the sun, into chemical energy that can be later released to fuel the organisms' activities. The light energy harnessed from the sun drives the reduction of carbon from CO2 to produce O2 and fixed carbon in form of carbohydrate.

Early in the twentieth century, it was mistakenly thought that light absorbed by photosynthetic pigments directly reduced CO2 which then combined with water to form carbohydrate. In fact, photosynthesis in plants is a two stage process in which light energy is harnessed to oxidise H2O:

2H2O        →          O2 + 4 [H+][SO1] 

The electrons thereby obtained subsequently reduce CO2:

4 [H2O] + CO2 → (CH2O) + H2O[SO2] 

The two stages of photosynthesis are traditionally referred to as the light reactions and the dark reactions:

In the light reactions, specialised pigment molecules capture light energy and are thereby oxidized. A series of electron- transfer reactions which culminate with the reduction of NADP+ to NADPH, generate ATP from ADP + Pi. The oxidised pigment molecules are reduced to H2O, thereby generating O2. The dark reactions use NADPH and ATP to reduce CO2 and incorporate it into the three-carbon precursors of carbohydrate.

The light reactions takes place in the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts in leafs and green parts of plants.  The inside of the thylakoid is referred to as the lumen. The light reactions are catalysed by enzymes located in the thylakoid membrane, whereas the dark reactions take place in the stroma. The principal photoreceptor of light is chlorophyll. These chlorophyll molecules do not participate directly in photochemical reactions but function to act as light harvesting antennas. The absorbed photons are transferred from molecule to molecule until it reaches the photosynthetic reaction centre.

In the respiratory chain, electrons flow from NADH+H+ to O2, with the production of water and energy. However in photosynthesis, electrons are taken up from water and transferred to NADP+, with an expenditure of energy. Photosynthetic electron transport is therefore energetically “uphill work.” To make this possible, the transport is stimulated at two points by the absorption of light energy. This occurs through two photo systems protein complexes that contain large numbers of chlorophyll molecules and other pigments Another component of the transport chain is the cytochrome bf complex, an aggregate of integral membrane proteins that includes two cytochromes (b563 and f). Plastoquinone, which is comparable to ubiquinone, and two soluble proteins, the copper containing plastocyanin and ferredoxin, function as mobile electron carriers. At the end of the chain, there is an enzyme that transfers the electrons to NADP+. Because photosystem II and the cytochrome b/f complex release protons from reduced plastoquinone into the lumen, photosynthetic electron transport establishes an electrochemical gradient across the thylakoid membrane, which is used for ATP synthesis by an ATP synthase.

ATP and NADPH+H+, which are both needed for the dark reactions, are formed in the stroma. (Voet et. al., 2013).

1.3aCalvin cycle

The actual CO2 fixation i.e., the incorporation of CO2 into an organic compound is catalysed by ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (“rubisco”). Rubisco, the most abundant enzyme on Earth, converts ribulose 1,5-bis-phosphate, CO2 and water into two molecules of 3-phosphoglycerate. These are then converted, via 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate and 3-phosphoglycerate, into glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. In this way, 1,2-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphates are synthesized from six CO2. Two molecules of this intermediate are used by gluconeogenesis reactions to synthesize glucose 6-phosphate. From the remaining 10 molecules, six molecules of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate are regenerated, and the cycle then starts over again. In the Calvin cycle, ATP is required for phosphorylation of 3-phosphoglycerate and ribulose-5-phosphate. NADPH+H+, the second product of the light reaction, is consumed in the reduction of 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate to glyceraldehyde-3- phosphate.

Carbohydrates are the most abundant biomolecules produced on earth; photosynthetic plants and algae convert over 100 billion metric tons of Co2 and water into sugars, starches, and cellulose like substance. Carbohydrates supply energy for the human body to function. They are the most abundant bulk nutrients and form the major source of biological energy through their oxidation in the tissues. They also furnish organic precursors for the biosynthesis of many cell components. Carbohydrates are not essential in the human diet, but because carbohydrate rich foods are abundant and cheap, compared with fats and protein, they naturally form a major part of the diet in most of the world. (Voet et. al., 2013).

 [SO1]Check this photosynthetic expression

 [SO2]Please check this photosynthetic formular

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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper


    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

    Click here to complete this article - How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

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