Agricultural Soil is a mixture of minerals, organic matter, gases, liquids, and countless organisms that together support life on earth. The use of compost or organic manure is currently being advocated as an option for improving soil fertility.

The method used in carrying out this analysis for cyanide, macronutrient (N,P,K) are titrimetric method, NO3 – UV spectrophotometric method, vanadomolybdo phosphorus acid method, and direct air-acetylene flame method respectively.

From the experimental analyses, the result obtained for the test of macronutrient (N,P,K) ranges from (-0.01 to 354.956) which shows that there was an increase in macronutrient before composting, after the composting process, there was a decrease in macronutrient. For cyanide it ranges from (-0.001 to 0.1) which also shows that cyanide was not found in the soil before composting, but after the composting process there was cyanide in the soil. For pH, it ranges from (3.1 to 6.72), with a mean value of 5.605 which shows that the soil was moderately acidic.

Kinetics of macronutrient (potassium) shows that there was an increase in concentration with respect to time, which has a second order reaction, with rate constant (K) of 7.14×mg/kg/day.

Conclusively, from the overall analysis it could be seen that cassava leaves compost has a bad effect on macronutrient content of agricultural soil.



1.1 Background ofthe Study

Soil is a major component of the earth's ecosystem. The world's ecosystems are impacted in far-reaching ways by the processes carried out in the soil, from ozone depletion and global warming, to rainforest destruction and water pollution. Apart from the atmosphere, the soil is the next largest carbon reservoir on earth, and it is potentially one of the most reactive to human disturbance and climate change(Bryant, 2006).

The chemistry of soil determines its ability to supply available plant nutrients and affects its physical properties and the health of its microbial population. It also determines its corrosivity, stability, and ability to absorb pollutants and to filter water. It is the surface chemistry of mineral and organic colloids that determines soil's chemical properties. "A colloid is a small, insoluble, nondiffusible particle larger than a molecule but small enough to remain suspended in a fluid medium without settling. Most soils contain organic colloidal particles called humus as well as the inorganic colloidal particles of clay." The very high specific surface area of colloids and their net charges, give soil its ability to hold and release ions.

The use of compost or organic manure is currently being advocated as an option for improving soil fertility. Organic manure or fertilizer increase the soil organic carbon pool and soil pH, improves the soil structure, decreases bulk density, provides macro- and micronutrients and enhances microbial activity. Most farmers use crop residues as feed for their livestock or as fuel. Thereby leaving only low quality plant residues for composting to generate soil humus.Humus refers to organic matter that has been decomposed by soil flora and fauna to the point where it is resistant to further breakdown. Humus usually constitutes only five percent of the soil or less by volume, but it is an essential source of nutrients and adds important textural qualities crucial to soil health and plant growth. Humus also hold bits of undecomposed organic matter which feed arthropods and worms which further improve the soil.This results in poor quality composts (Brancaet al., 2013). Therefore, the Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa has adapted integrated soil fertility management as a base for increasing crop productivity and restoring soil fertility. This strategy aims to combine organic and inorganic fertilizers, resulting in a synchronized nutrient release and uptake by the crop (Killhamet al., 2010).

The aim of this research is to investigate the effects of cassava leaves compost on soil properties.

1.2 Problem Statement

Cassava processing produces large amount of waste (cassava leaves) and is generally considered to contribute significantly to environmental pollution (FAO, 2001). In Nigeria (Oleh community)cassava waste leaves are usually left to rot away in open (agricultural soil), thereby altering the presence of heavy metals in the soil, the pH of the soil and the content of macronutrient available for plant growth.

Cyanide is concentrated in the cassava leaves and when the cassava leaves is decompose on the soil, it reduces the power of the macro nutrient on the soil which may lead to poor fertility of the agricultural soil.

High concentrations of cyanide can inhibit respiration and affect a plant’s ability to absorb nutrients from soil, in some cases causing plant death, cyanide diminish new growth and can affect the germination of seeds. Cyanide in the soil may therefore prove fatal to plant life.

1.3 Scope of the Study

The scope of the present study is to investigate the effect of continuous application of cassava leaves compost on agricultural soil, in a selected locality of Oleh town.

1.4 Relevance of the Study

Soil tests measure the relative nutrient status of soil and are used as a basis for profitable and environmentally responsible fertilizer application. The accuracy of a soil test result is influenced by the laboratory analysis but may be influence even more by the quality of the soil sample. Sample collection is extremely important in the accuracy and repeatability of a soil test. Sample handling following collection is also important. A soil sample which does not represent the area being sampled will be misleading and result in over or under-application of fertilizer. It is therefore very important to collect and handle soil samples properly.

This work will help to direct soil Samplers in methods for determining a composite soil test, but will also introduce site-specific methods for revealing within-field nutrient levels. The challenge has been to provide meaningful information about field and within field nutrient levels with minimal cost to the Producer.

1.5 Aim and Objectives of the Study

The aim of this work is to determine the macronutrient contents of cassava leaves composted agricultural soil: experimental investigation.

Specific objectives include;

To know the effect of cyanide present in the soil. To analyze the soil pH (check if it is acidic or not) and know the range. To measure the increase/decrease of the soil macronutrients resulting from the application of cassava leaves compost. To know the kinetics behind the study.





Researchwap.com is an online repository for free project topics and research materials, articles and custom writing of research works. We’re an online resource centre that provides a vast database for students to access numerous research project topics and materials. Researchwap.com guides and assist Postgraduate, Undergraduate and Final Year Students with well researched and quality project topics, topic ideas, research guides and project materials. We’re reliable and trustworthy, and we really understand what is called “time factor”, that is why we’ve simplified the process so that students can get their research projects ready on time. Our platform provides more educational services, such as hiring a writer, research analysis, and software for computer science research and we also seriously adhere to a timely delivery.


Please feel free to carefully review some written and captured responses from our satisfied clients.

  • "Exceptionally outstanding. Highly recommend for all who wish to have effective and excellent project defence. Easily Accessable, Affordable, Effective and effective."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I saw this website on facebook page and I did not even bother since I was in a hurry to complete my project. But I am totally amazed that when I visited the website and saw the topic I was looking for and I decided to give a try and now I have received it within an hour after ordering the material. Am grateful guys!"

    Hilary Yusuf, United States International University Africa, Nairobi, Kenya.
  • "Researchwap.com is a website I recommend to all student and researchers within and outside the country. The web owners are doing great job and I appreciate them for that. Once again, thank you very much "researchwap.com" and God bless you and your business! ."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I love what you guys are doing, your material guided me well through my research. Thank you for helping me achieve academic success."

    Sampson, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • "researchwap.com is God-sent! I got good grades in my seminar and project with the help of your service, thank you soooooo much."

    Cynthia, Akwa Ibom State University .
  • "Great User Experience, Nice flows and Superb functionalities.The app is indeed a great tech innovation for greasing the wheels of final year, research and other pedagogical related project works. A trial would definitely convince you."

    Lamilare Valentine, Kwame Nkrumah University, Kumasi, Ghana.
  • "Sorry, it was in my spam folder all along, I should have looked it up properly first. Please keep up the good work, your team is quite commited. Am grateful...I will certainly refer my friends too."

    Elizabeth, Obafemi Awolowo University
  • "Am happy the defense went well, thanks to your articles. I may not be able to express how grateful I am for all your assistance, but on my honour, I owe you guys a good number of referrals. Thank you once again."

    Ali Olanrewaju, Lagos State University.
  • "My Dear Researchwap, initially I never believed one can actually do honest business transactions with Nigerians online until i stumbled into your website. You have broken a new legacy of record as far as am concerned. Keep up the good work!"

    Willie Ekereobong, University of Port Harcourt.
  • "WOW, SO IT'S TRUE??!! I can't believe I got this quality work for just 3k...I thought it was scam ooo. I wouldn't mind if it goes for over 5k, its worth it. Thank you!"

    Theressa, Igbinedion University.
  • "I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much researchwap.com, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...."

    Joseph, Abia state Polytechnic.
  • "My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about researchwap.com, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"

    Christiana, Landmark University .
  • "I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!."

    Musa, Federal University of Technology Minna
  • "I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!."

    Ali Obafemi, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Niger State.
  • To contribute to our success story, send us a feedback or please kindly call 2348037664978.
    Then your comment and contact will be published here also with your consent.

    Thank you for choosing researchwap.com.