THE USE OF LOCAL PIGMENTS AND EXTENDERS FOR FORMULATION & PRODUCTION OF EMULSION PAINT                                                               ABSTRACT:               The major aim of this project research work is to produce emulsion paint from locally sourced pigment & extenders.The materials used for the production was of local source.The major raw materials used for the production of the emulsion paint: water, titanium iv oxide, calcium carbonate, kaoline, calgon, natrosol, biocide P.V.A, ammonia, deformer (Ginap) kerosene, yellow iron oxide and red iron oxide.Emulsion paint of two (2) samples was produced, and calcium carbonate locally obtained was used in larger quantity in order to reduce the cost of production of the paint with little of the expensive titanium iv oxide added.The first sample was a creamy white colour paint, while the second sample has a result of the mixture of blending of locally sourced yellow iron oxide and red iron oxide.  Pigment, that was added to it.  The two (2) samples gave high quality emulsion paints in terms of its brush ability, opacity, coverage, stability etc.Quality control test carried out on the two (2) samples of emulsion paint showed that the local pigment and extenders used (titanium iv oxide, calcium trioxocarbonate iv, kaoline, yellow iron oxide and red iron oxide) fitted in so well in the paints to give the necessary adhesion, opacity and coverage, with excellent binding effect observed.TABLE OF CONTENTTitle PageCertificationDedicationAcknowledgementTable of contentAbstractCHAPTER OF ONE:    1.0    Introduction1.1    Objectives of the research project1.2    Scope of research work1.3    Significance of studyCHAPTER TWO:    2.0    Literature Review2.1    Historical review of paint industry2.2    Outline of paint technology2.3    Paint types2.3.1    Emulsion (water-based) paint2.3.2    Latex paint2.3.3    White wash2.3.4    Case in paint2.3.5    Cement paint2.3.6    Linseed emulsion paint2.3.7    Gloss (oil) paint2.3.8    Enamels2.3.9    Traffic paints2.3.10     Making paints2.4    Specialties 2.4.1    Fire-retardation paints2.4.2    Aerosol colours2.4.3    Insecticide paint2.5    Paint composition and formulation2.5.1    Resins (film formers)2.5.2    Solvents2.5.3    Pigments and extenders2.6    Exterior building paints - formulation2.7    Paint qualities and quality control2.8    Description of raw materials for paint manufactureCHAPTER THREE3.0    Method of paint formulation3.1    Raw materials for paint formulation3.2    Raw materials for emulsion paint formulation3.3    Functions of the raw materials3.4    Formulation of emulsion paint3.5    Principles of paint formulation3.5.1    Pigment to binder ratio3.5.2    Pigment volume concentration (PVC)3.5.3    Solid content3.5.4    Weight per volume3.6    Process flow diagram (sheet) for production of emulsion paint3.7    Block flow diagram for production of emulsion painbt3.8    Formulea for samples selectionCHAPTER FOUR4.0    Quality control test4.1    Equipments for quality control test4.2    Quality control tests and resultsCHAPTER FIVE5.0    Economic evaluation5.1    Costing for sample A5.2    Costing for formulation B5.3    Profitability analysis5.4    Break-even analysisCHAPTER SIX6.1    Discussion6.2    Conclusion6.3    RecommendationReferenceBibliographyAppendix 1The son standard specification and the test properties of the samplesAppendix 2Formulation for sample AAppendix 3Formulation for sample BAppendix 4Manufacture of titanium dioxide from its local ore (ILMENITE) CHAPTER ONE 1.0    INTRODUCTIONPaint is a fluid, or semi-fluid material which may be applied to surfaces in relatively thin layers, and which changes to a solid coating with time.  The coating with time.  The change to a solid material may or may not be reversible, and may occur by evaporation of solvent by chemical reaction, or by a combination of the two.Paints usually consist of vehicle or binder, a pigment which contributes obscurities colour, hardness and bulk to the film, and a solvent or thinner which controls the consistency.Paint is basically classified into two, which are gloss paint and emulsion paint.1.0.1    GLOSS PAINTS (OIL-BASED PAINTS)These are paints that may be classified according to whether the drying mechanism is predominantly solvent evaporation, oxidation or some chemical reaction.  Gloss paints which dry essentially by solvent evaporation, reply on a fairly hard resin as the vehicle.Paints which dry by oxidation, the vehicle is usually an oil or an oil-based varnish, these usually contains driers to accelerate the drying of the oil.  Paint based essentially on oil with suitable pigment such as titanium dioxide, extenders, and usually zinc – oxide and white lead, are conventional outside ho use paints because these materials give the combination. Of  properties which meet this requirement .1.0.2    EMULSION PAINTS (WATER- BASED PAINTS)These are paints with water – soluble vehicle and they includes, calcimines, in which the vehicle is glue and case – in paints, in which the vehicles is casein or soyabean protein. This project research study is directed towards producing and formulating of emulsion paint (water –thinned paint) from local pigments and extenders as raw materials.  The high demand for emulsion paint for protective and decorative purposes has encourage the development of different equipments for the manufacturing operation.This piece of research work is due to reducing the high cost of emulsion paint formulation and production, because of the imported raw materials.  (E.g Titanium dioxide), and thereby disclosing a local raw material from our natural domin which could also be used for the same purpose.  An example of this locally obtained raw material for emulsion paint production is calcium carbonate in the form of calcite and dolomite.1.1    OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCH WORKThe objectives of the research project work is to study the formulation and production of emulsion paint with the use of local pigments and extenders as raw materials, and its economic value, and also disclosing some locally sourced materials from our local environment that could play the same role with the imported raw materials that are used for emulsion paint production, which causes the cost of emulsion paint production to be high.However, industrial survey reveals that paint manufacturers in Nigeria looks beyond the country territory for supply, and also, Nigerian paints industry is characterized by importation, starting from solvents which could be obtained in abundance from the country.1.2    SCOPE OF RESEARCH WORKThe scope of this research project work is organized to cover all vital aspect of emulsion paint formulation and production using local pigment and extenders as raw materials from our local environment, which will reduce the cost of emulsion paint production.The scope will also cover paint types and classifications, characterization and functions of paints, and also chemicals used in the formulation and production of emulsion paint.  However, emphasis will be laid on the systematic procedure of processing the local pigments and extenders used which will also cover the following;1.    Emulsion paint formulation and production2.    Run-rest on the following properties of emulsion painti.    Drying timeii.    Nature of reversibilityiii.    PH valueiv.    Specific gravityv.    Obscurityvi.    Viscosityvii.    Resistance to external exposureviii.    Brush ability1.3    SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDYOn considering the high cost of imported raw materials for the production of emulsion paint in the paint industry, which at the end of the production affect the market price, likewise causing economy constrain, there is need to lookout for those locally raw materials such as pigments and extenders (e.g calcium carbonate) which will give such desirable qualities and properties as those of imported raw materials (e.g Titanium Dioxide).It will be interesting to not6e that chemical Engineering have some of possible solutions towards reduction of high cost of emulsion paint production and also this research project work is directed towards the vital needs for the used of local pigments and extenders as raw materials for the production of emulsion paint of high quality and standards which will stand the test of time and also compete with those emulsion paints produced with imported raw materials.Finally, this research project work will be of more importance to the paint manufacturers in the country, who spend lost of money for importations of raw material, while they are bless with much raw materials as pigments and extenders for emulsion paint production in their country, it will also be of help to students researchers, and also reveals the importance of research among producers for future betterment and economy improvement.





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