PRODUCTION OF BIO-DIESEL USING PALM KERNEL

 PRODUCTION OF BIO-DIESEL USING PALM KERNEL 

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY  

Biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters) is an alternative fuel for diesel engines. It is an alcohol ester product from the transesterification of triglycerides in vegetable oils or animals accomplished by reacting lower alcohols such as methanol or ethanol with triglycerides.

The National Biodiesel Board (USA) technically defined biodiesel as a mono-alkyl ester. Blends of biodiesel and conventional hydrocarbon based diesel are products most commonly distributed for use in the retail diesel fuel market place. Biodiesel contain no petroleum, but it can be blended at any level with petroleum diesel to create a biodiesel blend. Much of the world uses a system known as the “B” factor to state the amount of biodiesel in any fuel mix:

Ø 100% biodiesel is referred to as B100. Ø 20% biodiesel, 80% petrodiesel is labelled B20. Ø 5% biodiesel, 95% petrodiesel is labelled B5. Ø 2% biodiesel, 98% petrodiesel is labelled B2.

Blends of less than 20% biodiesel can be used in diesel equipment with no, or only minor modifications. Biodiesel can also be used in its pure form (B100), but may be blended with petroleum diesel at any concentration in most injection pump diesel engine. New extreme high-pressure (29000 psi) common rail engine have strict factory limits of B5 or B20 depending on manufacturers.

Biodiesel has different solvent properties than petrodiesel, and will degrade natural rubber gaskets and hoses in vehicles (mostly vehicles manufactured before 1992), although these tend to wear out naturally and most likely will have already been replaced with FKM, which is non reactive to biodiesel.

The first diesel engine was produced by Rudolf in Augsburg and Germany. In remembrance of this event, August 10 has been declared “International Biodiesel Day”. Rudolf diesel demonstrated a diesel running on pea nut (at the request of the French government) but for the French otto company at the world fair in Paris, France in 1990. (Knothe, 2001).

Biodiesel has been known to breakdown deposits of residue in the fuel lines where petrodiesel has been used. As a result, fuel filters may become clogged with particulates of a quick transition to pure biodiesel is made. Therefore, it is recommended to change the fuel filters on engine and heaters shortly after switching to a biodiesel blend.

Biodiesel is light to dark yellow liquid immiscible with water, with high boiling point and low vapour pressure. It has been used as a substitute for diesel fuel in the automobile industry and also referred to as a diesel – equivalent processed fuel derived from vegetable oils. (Biodiesel, 2007).

Several research have been performed on the production of biodiesel and some basic feedstock for the fuel includes animal fats, vegetable oils, soy, rapseed, jatropha, mahua, mustard, flax, sunflower, palm oil, hemp, field pennycress, pongamiapinnata and algae. Pure biodiesel is the lowest emission diesel fuel. Although liquefied petroleum gas and hydrogen have cleaner combustion, they are used to fuel much less efficient petrol engines and are not as widely available. Biodiesel is an oxygenated fuel, meaning that it contains a reduced amount of carbon and higher hydrogen and oxygen content than fossil diesel. This improves the combustion and reduces the particulate emission from un-burnt carbon. Biodiesel is also safe to handle and transport because it is as biodegradable as sugar, ten times less toxic than table salt, has a high flash point of about 300oF (148oC) compared to petroleum diesel fuel, which has a flash point of 125oF (52oC). 

Current commercial production of biodiesel (FAME) is via homogeneous transesterification but this process has a lot of limitations, thus, making the cost of biodiesel not economical as compared to petroleum-derived diesel. One of the most significant limitations using this process is the formations of soap in the product mixture leading to additional cost required for the separation of soap from the biodiesel. Also, the formation of soap has also led to the loss of triglycerides molecules that can be used to form biodiesel. However, since the catalyst and the reactants/products are in the same phase, the separation of products (biodiesel) from the catalyst becomes complex. On the other hand, heterogeneous transesterification can overcome all these limitations in which solid based catalyst is used in place of homogeneous catalyst, making it a more efficient process for biodiesel production with lower cost and reduced environmental impact.

Xie et al. studied the transesterification of soybean oil to methyl ester using potassium-loaded alumina catalyst. Also, Suppes et al. studied the transesterification reaction of soybean oil with zeolite and metal catalysts for the production of biodiesel, while Jitputti et al. studied the transesterification of crude palm kernel oil and crude coconut oil using several acidic and basic solids.

All these study indicated that different oils would require different catalyst for optimum conversion to biodiesel. {International Conference on Environment 2008 (ICENV 2008)}

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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper


    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

    Click here to complete this article - How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

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