POLYTHENE AUTOMATIC SEALING MACHINE
CHAPTER ONE 1.0 INTRODUCTION Polythene Automatic Sealing and cutting machine is a machine that is used to seal and cut polythene into different sizes depending on the required dimension. Polythene is a type of synthetic rubber widely used often as transference sheets for waterproof packaging. The sealing machine is one of the most important fabrications of engineers of the 20th century, the achievements led to sweet relief for Agriculturist, industrialist, marketers, etc. for this purpose, the production of Agricultural and industrials, goods which need appropriate attention for packaging and storage has been on the increase. Traders in the market require Polythene bags in packaging commodities for their customers. The same material can be made in various shapes as long as the packaging of goods is concerned. There is an obvious need for diversification of the Nigerian economy. We can start by producing some simple machines so that the scare of foreign exchange can be conserved for more needs and essential goods. It will also enable Nigerian manufacture to expand their industries thereby making the price of products relatively cheaper compared with the imported ones and are affordable to the majority of Nigerians. Developed countries like Japan started by producing simple machines using abundant local raw material for the manufacture of goods that can also be exported in order to earn foreign exchange rather than exporting the raw material. There is a great need to improve on the technological advancement in the country since she is blessed with abundant material and human resources which need to be tapped for a useful purpose. In the plastic industry, the machines that are required to process goods into usable products can still be manufactured locally. Previously, the packaging system was done by the use of paper, clothing material, etc. These methods are either given way to cellophane packaging system. Different types of packaging systems emerged owing to the fact of the invention of which the most commonly used are cellophane and polythene packaging and sealing. It has the following advantages; low cost of production, high resistance to acid attacks, inertness, corrosion, etc. polyethylene is used in packaging goods like ice cream, umbrellas, exercise books, pure water, beverages, weapons, packet shirt, bread, biscuits, etc. the following properties polyethylene possessed are the reasons for its varieties of purpose that is to say how the cost of production, inertness, resistance to acid, and corrosion water. The use of polythene cannot be overemphasized. Most food packaging is for hygienic reasons. The technology of cellophane permits raw materials of textile industries to be carried with sealed polyethylene the finished products are either marketed or exported with polyethylene packaging. Most utensils are packaged with polyethylene. Special polyethylene materials have been a safer conveyance of glass and ceramics materials, especially for transportation and exportation of finished goods. Also, it is in packaging most of the electronic gadgets which include; computers, amplifiers, calculators, radio and T.V sets, etc. for safety purposes. It will be needless to talk about polyethylene without talking about the machines used in sealing generally. Some of the machines used in the industries include cellophane sealing machines used in sealing polyethylene materials, pneumatic, electrical sealing machines handled by electrical heater and needlepoint action, and hand sealing. 1.1 AIM AND OBJECTIVESThe aim of this project is to design and fabricate a polyethylene sealing machine capable of sealing a wide range of polythene materials using locally sourced, readily available, and cheap materials.The objectives of this project are as follows:To accurately get the polythene sealing machine to function manually (with the use of legs for sealing).2. To provide a polythene bag-making machine in which a narrow seal may be formed along the bottom of a polythene bag with no waste of material beyond the seal.3. To further understand how the variable process parameters of the heat sealing process affect the quality of the seal of the package (a polythene bag, cellophane, etc.).4. To acquire innovative engineering skills in the course of carrying out this project. 1.2. PROBLEM STATEMENTFrom researches and studies carried out, it was discovered that most of the polythene sealing machines cause electric shocks which have marred the continuous use of this kind of sealing process. Also, the cost of an average polythene sealing machine is high and as a result, this project aims to produce a polythene sealing machine that can be afforded at a cheaper rate. Finally, the unavailability of a polythene sealing machine in the Faculty of Engineering, Delta State University, Abraka, Oleh Campus has made the teaching and learning process of the subject much more difficult; which this project seeks to address. 1.3. LIMITATIONSWhen a Polythene Sealing Machine connected to an electric power supply (220 volts) it leads to shock due to high static charges being supplied. These static charges attract lightweight dust from the filling surface into the internal surface. In particular, contaminants get into the seal which prevents effective sealing and is not cosmetically acceptable to the end-user. This prevents proper sealing of the film, resulting in expensive machine downtime and poor product quality. 1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDYPolythene sealing machine is applicable for various daily activities such as the production of plastic bags which are used every day. Hence, this machine is significant in the following ways:It has a simple structure adopting the pedal control sealing type mechanism2. The machine has the ability to cut while sealing.3. The heat for sealing can be regulated using a temperature regulator/control knob.4. The machine also can be used in combination with the shrinking machine for tableware and other things.5. The machine has a good sealing effect and it is easy to operate.6. It has an adjustable sealing time makes this heat sealing machine more efficient..