EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON THE YIELD OF SHEA BUTTER IN AN UNBAFFLED VESSEL AT SELECTED KNEADING PERIOD

EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON THE YIELD OF SHEA BUTTER IN AN UNBAFFLED VESSEL AT SELECTED KNEADING PERIOD

INTRODUCTION  

Shea butter has been a traditional heritage of Africa from time immemorial. The triglyceride which contains a high amount of vitamin A, E, F and some other valuable nutrients is widely used in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, as well as for domestic use in cooking. Nigeria (as well as many other West African countries) is blessed with abundance of the shea tree (from which the shea butter is obtained). Due to increasing demand for this product, especially in the cosmetic industries across the globe, there is a need for process optimization where

a high yield of shea butter of good grade can be obtained with little energy input.

There are basically three methods of obtaining shea butter from shea nut:

Solvent Extraction Method

Use of Mechanical Expeller

Traditional Method

Solvent extraction makes use chemical solvent such as hexane to absorb the oil from the nut. The oil and the solvent are then separated in another column.

In the mechanical expeller process, an expeller is force driven into the nut contained in a tight container. As the expeller presses against the nut in a screw manner, the oil are forced out and collected at the end.

- 1 -

The traditional method (in southwest Nigeria for example) typically involves crushing of the nuts (after the outer flesh of the fruit has been removed) with mortar and pestle. The crushed nuts are then roasted in a large pot over an open fire (burning of fire wood). They are then ground and well mixed to form a thick paste. The paste formed is kneaded by hand and leg in a large container and with constant addition of water, the butter oil are separated, melted in another pot and cooled.

Of these three methods, the traditional process gives the best quality shea butter and it is by far the most preferred in the most industry. However, this process requires a lot of rigorous exercises. According to Bonkoungou in 2005 for example, it would take one person 20 to 30 hours to produce 1kg of shea butter. Also the level of personal and professional hygiene observed by the local producers may render the locally made shea butter unfit for use in areas such as pharmaceutical and chocolate industry. For example, in a research by Ademola, Oyesola and Osewa of the Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Ibadan conducted on 120 local producers of shea butter from different Local Governments Areas in Oyo state Nigeria, 95.8% of them do not actually wash the fruit before use.

Although the mechanical expeller process may be preferred in terms of energy saving, but it yields a denatured shea butter which can never compete in terms of quality with the handmade type.

The solvent extraction process gives the highest yield since it is a large scale industrial operation that may be adopted for commercial production. However, it is too expensive as the cost of equipment and operation may be more than the capacity of an individual. Also, the interaction of the solvent with the oil still makes the shea butter formed be of lower quality than the locally made product.

A good and sustainable process therefore must be one which can give high yield of uncontaminated shea butter, retain the essential vitamin content and at the same time less rigorous but economically feasible. One way of achieving all these is by modeling the traditional method. Model equipment could be fabricated using a stirrer or impeller to substitute the hand; thereby increasing the efficiency, reducing contamination by hand without loss of nutrients. In such modeling, a number of experiments must be carried out to know the optimum condition of operation of the model equipment. Several parameters must be tested for so as to obtain the best result; and according to literature, these include: kneading time and temperature, impeller type, shaft speed, eccentricity, etc.

- 2 -

1.2 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

The aim of this research is to investigate the effect of kneading temperature at selected kneading period on the yield of shea butter produced from shea paste in an unbaffled vessel.

1.3 SCOPE OF WORK

This research measures the effect of three parameters on yield – shaft eccentricity, shaft speed and impeller type. While eccentricity tries to determine the best position of the stirrer relative to the center of the vessel, the shaft speeds helps to determine the optimum speed of the stirrer while the impeller type tells something on the nature or type of impeller to use. Other parameters such as kneading time and temperature are not considered here (a complementary work considering these two is being undertaken by another student).

Also, the research measures the effect of these parameters only from the kneading operation, (since this is the most important operation where the actual separation takes place) so that the crushing, roasting and milling operations are done prior to measurement, making work faster. The vessel being considered for kneading is an unbaffled one. This is to avoid deposition of materials inside the vessel which may affect the yield.

In all, this research narrows down to a system where the response can be measured within a short while given different input, thus the use of shea paste in an unbaffled vessel.

Project Topics   Project Topics and Materials   

.

Click Here To Get The Complete Project »

How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper


    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

    Click here to complete this article - How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

TESTIMONIES FROM OUR CLIENTS


Please feel free to carefully review some written and captured responses from our satisfied clients.

  • "I love what you guys are doing, your material guided me well through my research. Thank you for helping me achieve academic success."

    Sampson, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • "researchwap.com is God-sent! I got good grades in my seminar and project with the help of your service, thank you soooooo much."

    Cynthia, Akwa Ibom State University .
  • "Sorry, it was in my spam folder all along, I should have looked it up properly first. Please keep up the good work, your team is quite commited. Am grateful...I will certainly refer my friends too."

    Elizabeth, Obafemi Awolowo University
  • "Am happy the defense went well, thanks to your articles. I may not be able to express how grateful I am for all your assistance, but on my honour, I owe you guys a good number of referrals. Thank you once again."

    Ali Olanrewaju, Lagos State University.
  • "My Dear Researchwap, initially I never believed one can actually do honest business transactions with Nigerians online until i stumbled into your website. You have broken a new legacy of record as far as am concerned. Keep up the good work!"

    Willie Ekereobong, University of Port Harcourt.
  • "WOW, SO IT'S TRUE??!! I can't believe I got this quality work for just 3k...I thought it was scam ooo. I wouldn't mind if it goes for over 5k, its worth it. Thank you!"

    Theressa, Igbinedion University.
  • "I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much researchwap.com, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...."

    Joseph, Abia state Polytechnic.
  • "My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about researchwap.com, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"

    Christiana, Landmark University .
  • "I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!."

    Musa, Federal University of Technology Minna
  • "I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!."

    Ali Obafemi, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Niger State.
  • To contribute to our success story, send us a feedback or please kindly call 2348037664978.
    Then your comment and contact will be published here also with your consent.

    Thank you for choosing researchwap.com.