Piper nigrum (pepper fruit) is an indigenous fruit tree of the family Annonaceae (Etukudo, 2000). It’s widely distributed and consumed by the inhabitants of Western Cameroons, Ivory Coast and Southern Nigeria (Hutchinson and Dalziel, 1954; Keay et al., 1960; Okiy, 1960). It is a medium- sized or small tree which spreads throughout the rain forest and sometimes found in forest within the Savanna areas (Keay et al., 1964). Piper nigrumfruits appear red when ripe and green when unripe. The matured fruits constitute the main edible portion. The leaves, fruit, bark and root of the plants possess strong pepperish and pungent spicy taste with a characteristic aroma and fragrance. The young leaves and fruits have instinctive spicy taste (Achinewhu et al., 1995). The fruits are chewed in different forms (fresh green, fresh ripened red, black dry fruit and dry seed).

Piper nigrum fruit serve as mild stimulant to the consumer (Aiyeloja and Bello, 2006; Ndukwu and Nwadibia, 2006; Oyemitan et al., 2006). The fruits and leaves are used as seasonings which are added to prepared food such as meat, soup, sausage and in some special local dishes and vegetables (Ejechi and Akpomedaye, 2005). Dennettia plant yields a good fuel wood (Abbiw, 1990 and Duguma et al., 1990). Its various parts are commonly used as spices and condiment (Oyemitan, 2008). The fruit is sold for money especially by rural women.

Piper nigrum fruits have been reported to contain important nutritive substances such as vitamins, minerals and fiber (Okwu et al., 2005). It was also indicated that the rich presence of essential oil (oleoresins) determines the aromatic flavoring, coloring and pungent properties of pepper fruits. Nwaogu et al. (2007) investigated phytochemical content of Piper nigrum and detected the presence of saponins, flavonoids, tannins and cyanogenic glycosides. Also Adebayo et al., (2006) reported the presence of flavonoids in Dennettia tripetala. The intake of flavonoids in any fruit and vegetable tends to decrease cancer risk (Neuhouser, 2004; Graf et al., 2005). Flavonoid according to Harpens et al., (1979) contributes to the colour of plants, their fruits and flowers. Timothy and Okeke (2005) reported that ingestion of 0.75g of Piper nigrumreduces the intraocular pressure (IOP) of normotensive emmetrops though not sustained at 30 minutes post consumption. The IOP was reduced by 17.30% (12.90 mmHg) from the mean baseline of 15.60mmHg.

On the other hand, Dacryodes edulis (also called African plum, African pear, black pear or Safou) is an indigenous fruit tree in the humid low lands and plateau regions of West, Central African and Gulf of Guinea countries. In south-east Nigeria, the trees are grown around homesteads and flowering takes place from January to April. The major fruiting season is between May and October (Emebiri and Nwufo, 1990; Kengue and Nyagatchou, 1990).

Fruits are ellipsoidal and their size varies approximately from 4 - 9 cm long and from 2 - 5 cm wide (Omoti and Okiy, 1987). They could be an important source of pulp oil, seed oil and even whole fruit oil (Awono et al., 2002). The Safou oil should take their place in the food industry, the pharmaceutical and the cosmetics industry (soap, perfume, creams) as well as in other branches of industry where fat raw materials are needed. The cake remaining after the production of pulp oil may be useful in human food industry (bakery, baby foods). Information on the consumption and composition of Safou is far from complete. As the fruit becomes more popular and is increasingly commercialized, such information is indispensable for proper valorisation of the fruit.

Monkey Kola which is known as the genus Cola of the family Sterculiaceae is to tropical Africa and has its centre of greatest diversity in West Africa.  About 40 Cola species have been described in West Africa. In Nigeria about twenty three (23) species are known and some are used in traditional medicine as stimulant, to prevent dysentery, headache and to suppress sleep. Cola rostrata and C. lepidota (CL) K. Schum are perennial trees popularly known as monkey cola and cockroach kola. Monkey kola is a common name given to a number of minor relatives of the Cola spp. that produce edible tasty fruits. Native people of southern Nigeria and the Cameron relish the fruits, as well as some wild primate animals especially monkeys, baboons and other species. Seeds of the monkey kola species are obliquely ovoid with two flattered surfaces, rough and reddish brown or green; but not edible unlike the seeds of kola nut (C. nitida). The aril (waxy mesocarp) form the edible portion of the follicle, and varied in colour, with the C. rostrata having whitish aril, while C. lepidota is characterized by yellowish aril. Cola lepidota is reported to be employed in Nigerian folk medicine as febrifuges, for pulmonary problems and cancer related ailments


In Nigeria, many indigenous plants are used as spices, food or medicine. A great number of these plants are traditionally noted for their medicinal and pesticide properties. Piper nigrum(pepper fruit) is a medium sized tree found commonly in the tropical rainforest region of Nigeria and sometimes in savannah areas. The young leaves and fruits have a distinctive spicy taste. Pepper fruit tree is a tropical tree common in the mangrove forests of the west coast of Africa. It flowers at the beginning of the rainy season, especially during the months of April and May. The mature fruits constitute the major edible portions. However, some communities in parts of Southern Nigeria also utilise the leaves and the roots in addition to the fruits for medicinal purposes. Piper nigrum is used for masticating which, when chewed, produces a special peppery effect. The peppery, spicy taste of mature fruits usually serves as a mild stimulant to the consumer. The fruits are sometimes taken with kola nut, garden egg and palm-wine in parts of Nigeria. The fruit of Piper nigrumis quite popular in Southern Nigeria where it serves for cultural entertainment of guests, particularly during coronation, the new yam festival and marriage ceremonies. It is used as a spice, seasoning or natural flavour which is added to prepared food such as meat, sausage, stew, soup and vegetables. The bark of Piper nigrum fruits is mixed with food to create variation in the taste and flavour of different foods. It has been reported that the peppery fruits of Piper nigrum usually find application in food meant for pregnant women. Moreover, Piper nigrum seeds are very important in the diets of women after childbirth, during which time it is claimed that spices and herbs aid the contraction of the uterus. The various constituents of this important fruit have not been fully documented. Little is known of the composition of Piper nigrum fruit despite its widespread multipurpose uses as food and drugs.

African pear is well known plant in West African; the fruit is referred to as the “Ube” in the South-East of Nigeria, “Native pear” in Ghana, or “Safoutier” in Cameroon and “Bush butter” in many other areas of tropical regions of

Africa. The tree of Africa pear is an evergreen oleiferous tropical fruit tree which grows in the humid and subhumid climates of West and Central African Countries (Kengue, 2001). The fruit at maturity becomes bluish black and more susceptible to injury and heavy losses at the advanced stage of maturity (Kapsue and Kayem, 1998). The fruit pulp and seed of African pear are well known for richness in protein, fat, fiber, mineral and essential amino acids (Kengue, 2001). Domestically, the fruits are gathered for household used such as eaten raw, boiled in hot water or roasted alongside with boiled or roasted corn.


The following forms the statement of problem of the study;

A major setback in the commercial utilization of African fruits is the lack of adequate and consistent data. Most of the published data collected on the chemical and antioxidant properties of the fruits, are at variant from each other. Also, lack of information on the properties of the fruit has led to no processed products from the fruit. Efforts made so far to optimize the economic and to a lesser extent the nutritional value of the fruits have emphasized its oil content (quality and extraction methods) and have largely ignored how other components, especially the proteins could also be utilized to supplement the nutritional needs of the consumer. Most studies aimed at enriching bakery products have made use of legumes as their major protein source. Yet other plant food sources such as the pepper fruit, black pear and monkey kola rich in proteins could be used for this purpose.


At the end of the research work, the researcher expects to achieve the following objectives;

Improve the general awareness of the uses of the fruits under study Throw more light towards the medicinal application of the fruits. Elaborate the chemical and antioxidant content of the fruits Show practically how the chemical and antioxidant content of the fruits can be used medicinally.


This research work is aimed at investigating successfully the chemical and antioxidant content of pepper fruit, black pear and monkey kola in the laboratory. To effectively achieve this, a step by step rudiments was ensured in where the chemical and antioxidant content was first ascertained as well as the properties of these chemicals and antioxidants.


The significance of this research work is to determine the chemical and antioxidant content and properties of pepper fruit, black pear and monkey kola. This is aimed at so that knowledge of its utilization especially medicinally will be ascertained so that its knowledge will assist people who can easily get the fruit to treat come common sicknesses like cough, sore throat etc.


Although the aim of the work was achieved, the research work was faced with lot setbacks especially during the practical aspect. It was discovered the necessary materials and reagents needed to effectively carry out the practical work was limited coupled with the limited time frame given for the research work.


The research details presented here only shows the chemical and antioxidant properties of pepper fruit, black pear and monkey kola with a little introduction of its medicinal uses and implications. 

Project Topics   Project Topics and Materials   


Click Here To Get The Complete Project »

How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper

    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

    Click here to complete this article - How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)


Please feel free to carefully review some written and captured responses from our satisfied clients.

  • "I love what you guys are doing, your material guided me well through my research. Thank you for helping me achieve academic success."

    Sampson, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • " is God-sent! I got good grades in my seminar and project with the help of your service, thank you soooooo much."

    Cynthia, Akwa Ibom State University .
  • "Sorry, it was in my spam folder all along, I should have looked it up properly first. Please keep up the good work, your team is quite commited. Am grateful...I will certainly refer my friends too."

    Elizabeth, Obafemi Awolowo University
  • "Am happy the defense went well, thanks to your articles. I may not be able to express how grateful I am for all your assistance, but on my honour, I owe you guys a good number of referrals. Thank you once again."

    Ali Olanrewaju, Lagos State University.
  • "My Dear Researchwap, initially I never believed one can actually do honest business transactions with Nigerians online until i stumbled into your website. You have broken a new legacy of record as far as am concerned. Keep up the good work!"

    Willie Ekereobong, University of Port Harcourt.
  • "WOW, SO IT'S TRUE??!! I can't believe I got this quality work for just 3k...I thought it was scam ooo. I wouldn't mind if it goes for over 5k, its worth it. Thank you!"

    Theressa, Igbinedion University.
  • "I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...."

    Joseph, Abia state Polytechnic.
  • "My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"

    Christiana, Landmark University .
  • "I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!."

    Musa, Federal University of Technology Minna
  • "I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!."

    Ali Obafemi, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Niger State.
  • To contribute to our success story, send us a feedback or please kindly call 2348037664978.
    Then your comment and contact will be published here also with your consent.

    Thank you for choosing