Background of the study  

Book and Vondracek (2006) highlighted several past involvements of adult education in the preservation of culture to enhance access since medieval times when monks fastidiously transcribed documents by hand. They also indicated that adult education began massively in tertiary institutions to successfully reformat thousands of rare collections and crumbling culture as effective means of preserving our societal heritage. They further noted that digitization can also be the first step in conducting advanced research on historical materials and ancient documents present a prime candidate for digitization because of their historical imports, combined with century of exposure and degradation. Digicult (2003) concluded that “adult educationcontributes to the conservation and preservation of heritage and scientific resources, crates new educational opportunities, can be used to encourage tourism and it provides ways of improving access by the citizen to their patrimony”. Also, in recent times, adult education has played major parts in the preservation of cultural heritage. Making high quality images available electronically can reduce wear and tear of fragile items. According to Jones (2001), we live in an increasingly digital world.

Hundreds of libraries, museums and archives have recently launched projects designed to digitize their collections and place them on the web. According to Stephen Ostrow cited by Jones (2001), this trend is both “auspicious and ominous for cultural heritage institutions”. The main reasons to digitize are to enhance assess and improve preservation. By digitalizing their collections, cultural heritage institutions can make information that was previously only available to a select group of researchers accessible to all. Digital projects allow users to search collections rapidly and comprehensively from anywhere at any time (Jones 2001). One of the primary problems confronting library profession is lack of commitment by the available human resources, particularly, in the areas of information and communication technologies (ICTs) and preservation of resources on cultural heritage. The knowledge explosion brought about by the acceleration of scientific and technological progress is adding a new dimension to education, capacity building, amongst other essential human development endeavours. Librarians, irrespective of their levels in the professional hierarchy must possess the conceptual knowledge, skills and attitudes relevant to the performance of their jobs. Training refers to the manifestation of knowledge, skills and attitudes in a person which enables him to apply them in his work situation. In essence, education is to cause a permanent change in behaviour potential of the concerned individual and it is regarded as the key with which to unlock the stores of knowledge and for their use by the society. As a result of its importance for professional upliftment, libraries have often tried to inculcate some desirable professional orientations in their personnel through training. Digitization can also be the first step for conducting advanced research on historical materials. Ancient documents present a prime candidate for digitization because of their historical import, combined with centuries of exposure and degradation habits in their arrangement. However, Oketunji (2001) observed that the library schools are inadequate in meeting the challenges of modern information technologies owing to lack of financial resources to procure the necessary equipment needed for the training of students.

Similarly, Singh (2004) argued that skill in information Technology (IT) can be gained only when one gets hands on training and experience in laboratories under simulated conditions or in real life situations. The graduates and past graduates turned out by library schools do not possess adequate skill and expertise to interact confidently with IT specialists, evaluate what is recommended by their and full fall their requirements. A study by Lee, Traurh, and Farwell (1995) has indicated “that inducting will demand a cadre of IT professionals with knowledge and skills in technology, business operations, management, and integration and process re-engineering activities”. This paper seeks to answer five questions. First, it looks into the forms of professional training received by librarians in Federal Universities in the Southeast Nigeria as to ascertain their ability in meeting the accessibility and preservation of our cultural heritage. Second, it ascertains various formats of cultural heritage available in our institutions and environment. Third, it examines various traditional and electronic methods used by the studied libraries in preserving these rare cultural materials. Fourth, it identifies institutions involved in digitization of these materials, and fifth, the problems confronting these institutions in their efforts to provide access and preservation of cultural materials.

1.2   Statement of the problem Today, Africa remains the world’s poorest continent. There could be several reasons for this but one of the key ones is that education has not been relevant to the needs of the society. Substantial resources have been expended to boost education in Africa, even though such resources may not have been adequate. The basic problem is that educational structures were formulated by colonialists who had a cultural background different to that obtaining among Africans. Decades of self-rule and independence have not succeeded in empowering Africans through enabling them determine their educational framework. In part, this difficulty is a result of the continued social and economic ties between African countries and their former colonizing powers. Although Africa is politically independent, it remains technologically and economically dependent on countries that colonized it. Current educational structures are meant mainly to foster this bond, rather than reduce it. Reforms in African education were conceived and implemented within the framework of this relationship, hence they did not go far enough to develop and foster African culture.

1.3   Significance of the study Efforts to preserve resources on cultural heritage have gained new momentum throughout the world nowadays. Protecting cultural heritage is economical, as well as historical and also a cultural process. While cultural heritage preservation has not yet become firmly rooted in the Nigerian consciousness as football is, a great number of people and organizations see cultural resources as critical to the nation’s economic development through tourism. Cultural heritage is based on the aspects of our past that we cherish, want to keep and pass on to future generations and outside world. However, the economic benefits of preservation are secondary to the intrinsic value of that heritage which is been preserved. Based on the bases above, it is therefore worthwhile to examine the essence of preserving our culture through Adult Education in our society.

1.4   Objectives of the study 1. To identify a relationship between adult education and cultural heritage. 2. To deduce whether adult education will influence the preservation of the cultural heritage of the people of Ikwerre Local Government Area in Port Harcourt.

1.5   Research questions 1. Is there a relationship between adult education and cultural heritage? 2. Can adult education influence the preservation of the cultural heritage of the people of Ikwerre Local Government Area in Port Harcourt?

1.6   Research hypothesesHo: There is no relationship between adult education and cultural heritage.Hi: There is a relationship between adult education and cultural heritage.Ho: Adult education cannot influence the preservation of the cultural heritage of the people of Ikwerre Local Government Area in Port Harcourt.Hi: adult education can influence the preservation of the cultural heritage of the people of Ikwerre Local Government Area in Port Harcourt.

1.7   Limitations of the study

Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview). Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other   academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

1.8   Scope of the study The study focuses on the influence of adult education in the preservation of Ikwerre cultural heritage in Port Harcourt.1.9   Definition of terms

Adult Education: This is a practice in which adults engage in systematic and sustained self-educating activities in order to gain new forms of knowledge, skills, attitudes, or values. Culture: This is a way of life of a group of people--the behaviors, beliefs, values, and symbols that they accept, generally without thinking about them, and that are passed along by communication and imitation from one generation to the next. Cultural Heritage:Thisis the legacy of physical artifacts and intangible attributes of a group or society that are inherited from past generations, maintained in the present and bestowed for the benefit of future generations.


Ajidahun, C.O. (2007). The training, development and education of library manpower in information technology in university libraries in Nigeria.World Libraries 17 (1). Appleby, P.C. (1991). Modern business administration. London: Pitman. Boock, M., &Vondracek, R. (2006).Organising for digitization: A survey. Portal: Libraries and the Academy 6(2): 197-217. Cortez, E.M., Dutta, S.K., &Kazlauskas, E.J. (2004). Digicult (2003) Europe: Creating cooperation for digitization. Ekere, F.C., &Ekere, J. (2008).Contemporary challenges facing library and information science professions in Nigeria.In Nworgu, B.G. (Ed.).Global challenge and enhancement strategies. Proceeding from first International Conference of the Faculty of Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, held from 17th-21st June. 



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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper

    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

    Click here to complete this article - How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)


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