AVAILABILITY OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS FOR THE TEACHING OF BUSINESS STUDIES IN NIGERIA


 AVAILABILITY OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS FOR THE TEACHING OF BUSINESS STUDIES IN NIGERIA 

ABSTRACT

This work had been designed to extensively focus on the availability of instructional materials for the teaching of business studies in secondary schools using Esan West Local Government Area as a case study; it is designed to assess the extent of utilization of these materials in teaching of business studies in junior secondary schools. The researchers adopted survey research design in addressing the problems of the study. In the course of the research, a checklist was designed on the availability of instructional materials; and these materials were recorded across six secondary schools in Esan West Local Government. The findings revealed that there is low level of material availability in teaching of business studies in secondary schools; also it was found that instructional materials available in most were crude in nature and does not meet modern day standards. Based on the findings of the study, some recommendations were made, amongst which are:

1. That Government should make available instructional materials so as effective teaching could be carried out in the secondary schools.

2. Adequate trained teachers should be recruited and posted to schools. The teacher should be encouraged to take refresher courses to improve upon their techniques from time to time. 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page………………………………………………………………..ii

Certification……………………………………………………………iii

Dedication………………………………………………………………iv

Acknowledgement……………………………………………………..v

Table of Contents…………………………………………………….vi

Abstract………………………………………………………………..ix

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction…………………………………………..….………………1

Statement of Problem………………………………………..………...5

Purpose of Study…………………………………….……..…….…….8

Research Questions……………………………………….……………8

Significance of Study………………………………..…….…..……….8

Scope of Study…………………………………….………..………..….9

Limitation of Study………………………………………………...…9

CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Concept of Learning among Secondary School Students..10

Factors that Affect Learning of Business Studies…………..16

Overview of Learning Theories…………………………………...17

Relevance of Audio Visual Aids in 

Teaching of Business Studies............................................22 

Instructional Aids and Teaching of Business 

Studies in secondary schools……………………………………24

Summary of literature……………………………………………..26

CHAPTER THREE 

METHODOLOGY

Introduction…………………………………………………….28

Research Design……………………..………………………..28

Population of Study………………………………..………....28

Sample and Sampling Procedure…………………….…….29

Research Instrument …………………………………….….29

Validation of Research Instrument………………..………29

Administration of Research Instrument………………….29

Data Analysis Technique ………………………………..…..30

CHAPTER FOUR: 

DATA ANALYSIS INTERPRETATION & DISCUSSION

Introduction..........................................……..……….……31

Data Presentation…………………………………………..……31

Analysis of Research Questions…………………………..…..32

Discussion………………………………………..………….……35

CHAPTER FIVE: 

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND

RECOMMENDATIONS

Summary………………………………………….………………37

Conclusion……………………………………………………..….39

Implication of the findings……………………………………..41

 Recommendations……………………..……………………..…43

References…………………………………………………………..45

Appendix I………….………………………………………………48

Appendix II………………………………………………………….50

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

A teacher is effective only if the students learn more and learn with greater ease more particularly, when such learning positively impact on their permanence. To know how to teach, it is necessary to know how students learn. Many psychologists have carried out experiments on how students learn and came up with theories which have greatly influenced teaching and learning. You need to be familiar with major theories of learning which would enable you understand your students, their interest, mental attitude, individual differences, their readiness level, those things that motivate them to learn as well as a variety of learning experiences which the students could be exposed to and made to participate actively in. 

Teaching involves many activities, behaviours and processes. There are various definitions of teaching. According to Russon and Wanous (2003), teaching is the process of directing or guiding learning. It is the art of causing another to learn. Teaching can also be seen as the arrangement of situations which will lead to desirable and satisfying ends Ifeagwu (2000) defined teaching as a two – way traffic system involving exchange of ideas between the teacher and the students. He further defined teaching as a series of activities geared towards helping students “learn how to learn”. 

From the above definitions, it can be seen that teaching involves a teacher, learner (s), learning/ teaching materials, learning activities and effective communication between teacher and learner. The goal of teaching is to bring about desired learning in the students. This study will like to emphasize here that your success at teaching is measured by the achievement of your students. If they learn what they are supposed to learn under your direction, then you have successfully taught. If not, then you have failed. 

According to Canning (2006), the most important aspect of good teaching lies in discovering and applying the best ways of learning. We shall at this stage consider the concept of learning, how students learn and hindrances to effective learning. There is one kind of learning; it is therefore not easy to define it. Many scholars and educationists have made several attempts to define learning. Generally, learning can be defined as a relatively permanent change in behaviour that comes from reinforced practice. It must be mentioned at this point that reinforcement plays a vital role in a learning process. Reinforcement may be defined as any condition that exists to promote learning. In a classroom setting, reinforcement could be seen as immediate knowledge of the results of student’s efforts which encourage them (students) to continue. Knowledge of scores, words of encouragement or praise or monetary rewards are all examples of reinforcement that work.

According to Ifeagwu (2000) learning can be defined as the behavioural change that take place at the end of a teacher – student’s interaction in a classroom setting. In other words, learning is the experience gained from interaction in a classroom setting. In other words, learning is the experience gained from interactions. As Daugherty (2004) puts it, learning is a change in an individual through some form of experience. This is sometimes referred to as a desirable change in the behaviour of the human being. Learning is therefore a modification of behaviour. It is a process which involves changes in perception and behavior.

Farrant (2003) says learning is the process by which we acquire and retain attitudes, knowledge, understanding, skills and capabilities that cannot be attributed to inherited behavioural patterns or physical growth. From the above definitions, it can be observed that learning involves the acquisition of knowledge, habits, skill, attitudes and patterns of behaviour that are desirable through some form of experience of interactions. It must be emphasized here that the concept of change is inherent in the concept of learning. If there is any change in behavior it means that learning is taking place or has taken place. 

The two major characteristics inherent in human learning are the active and continuous nature of behavioral changes. Learning is an active process in the sense that the learner has to be involved in the learning activities. Learning is continuous in the sense that it takes place from cradle to the grave, before school, in school, outside of school and all through life what is therefore expected of you as teacher is to understand how you can influence the student to change his behaviour through various educational experiences. Your objective should be of guide to your students through appropriate learning experiences that would bring about desirable changes in them.

1.2 Statement of the Problem   

It has been identified that using instructional material to facilitate learning or instructions is not always the issue but how to use it and its availability. Basing our discussion on foreign experience, instructional material is available in large quantity “the increased quality and quantity of instructional material, are producing a split from the traditional audio visual aids approach to the more comprehensive and efficient learning resource concepts.” 

“Most teacher will agree that during the last decades the quality of instructional resource, including textbooks had greatly improved, but with quantitative changes and a rapidly multiplying supply of available materials, the teachers problem of selection has grown increasingly acute” (Asudorf 2009:278).

“Instructional material in great qualities is being placed in school at an ever increasing rate. The teacher’s problem today, then, is not the lack of materials, but how to make the best instructional use of those available to him” (Jarolinek 2001). Unfortunately, instructional materials especially with the modern innovations are grossly lacking and faced with a lot of problems in it’s used by teachers. Not only have business studies been taught in schools since formal western type education was first introduced into the country, after the attainment of political independence in 1960, the wisdom of giving a vocational course so much importance in government and education also began gradually to be questioned. 

Thus, some people fully and openly canvassed in house of assembly to replace this vocational course with a science that would allow students to read science courses (Bamgbose 2006: 12-13). Others who were particularly worried by the problem most people in the country actually have in understanding business studies and practicing well in it, advised that more effort should be put into the teaching of major science course to enable them serve as an alternative to business studies (Osaji 2009: 159; quoting the white paper on Udoji Report)

The overall effect of suggestions and pressures of this kind was to bring about an important shift in the attitude of the government particularly, at the federal level to the teaching of business studies. The shift too to begin with the form of an admission by government to scrap out the vocational language outrightly. The implication of this which government came to see and appreciate is that if suspicion from the masses, it has to decline any funds for instructional material. The government also came to see other science course as an alternative to business studies more clearly.

Before the formal introduction of business into schools, certain subjects were doing the job of social education. Such subjects, according to Regan and Macaulay (2007) include history, geography, civics and sociology. History by that time was much emphasized because it was believed to perform certain functions like inspiring nationalism, strengthening the mind, fostering citizenship training (social education), and encouraging role learning. It is also evidence that the non – availability of senior secondary business studies syllabus seems to suggest that the Nigerian educational system is still paying lip – service on citizenship education with its confined utilitarian value. Although the junior secondary business studies towards preparing the learners to be human rational, skillful in decision making, participating and responsible citizens in a world that is becoming complex and interdependent. It is with these in mind that the following research questions are formulated in other to aid the research work.

1.3 Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to find out whether instructional materials for the teaching and learning of business studies in secondary school are available if available, are they functioning? Are they adequate? If sufficient, do we have qualified teachers using them for the teaching and learning of business studies?

1.4 Research Questions

1. Are instructional materials for the teaching and learning of business studies available in our secondary schools?

2. If available, are they functioning and adequate for the teaching and learning of business studies in our schools?

3. Do we have qualified teachers using the available instructional materials for the teaching and learning of business studies?

1.5 Significance of the Study

This research work will benefit students in secondary and tertiary institutions because they will fully understand the impact that instructional materials have on how they learn. Teachers will also benefit from this research work in ways that they will understand how instructional materials can aid in their teaching of the subject.

Parents will benefit from this study because it will serve as a baseline to what should be expected from teachers and students alike. And also policy makers will benefit from this study because they understand how the policies will affect teachers and students and how these policies can be improved on.

Government will also be the greatest beneficiary because this study will allow students to be ready for the outside world at the end of their training or schooling and this will serve as a nation building catalyst.

1.6 Scope of the Study

The scope of the study is some selected secondary schools offering business studies as a vocational subject in Esan West Local Government Area of Edo State.

1.7 Limitation of the Study

The study is limited by finance which is one of the major set back in compiling and sourcing for materials. Another limitation encountered is the time and there are no enough checklists to cover the whole of Esan West Local Government so therefore, only some schools were selected.

LITERATURE REVIEW  

This section reviews the works of authors in the area of availability of instructional materials; the section shall be treated under the following sub headings:

Concept of learning among secondary school students Factors that Affect Learning of Business Studies Overview of Learning Theories Relevance of Audio Visual Aids in teaching of Biasness Studies Instructional Aids and Teaching of Business Studies in secondary schools Summary of the Literature

2.1   Concept of Learning among Secondary School Students  

Many psychologists have attempted to classify learning. This is because it is generally believed that the type of learning expected determines the method of teaching to adopt. The most popular classification of the domains of learning is that given by Bloom and his associates n 1956.They are the psychomotor domain which refers to development of manipulative or motor skills which require efficient co-ordination between our brains and muscles; the cognitive domain which refers to intellectual skills and abilities. It is achieved by mental processes such as reasoning remembering and recall; the affective domain which refers to changes in interest, attitudes and value which influence our personalities. In practice, there is to some extent an overlapping from one domain to the other. All forms of learning are in these three domains. It is your responsibility to select appropriate techniques that would facilitate learning. Students have many responsibilities with  regard to their learning, students who make the effort required to succeed n school  and who are able to apply themselves will soon discover that there is a direct relationship between this effort and their achievement , and will therefore be more motivated to work. There will be some students however, who will find it more difficult to take responsibility for their learning because of special challenges they face. For these students, the attention, patience, and encouragement of teachers can be extremely important factors for success. Taking responsibility for their own progress and learning is an important part of education for all students, regardless of their circumstances. Mastery of all concepts and skills in business studies require a sincere commitment to work, study and the development of appropriate skills. Teachers are responsible for developing appropriate instructional strategies to help students to achieve the curriculum expectations, as well as appropriate methods for assessing and evaluating student learning [Daniels 2008]. Teachers also support students in developing the reading, writing, oral communicate and numeracy skills needed for success in their courses. Teachers bring enthusiasm and various teaching and approaches to the classroom, addressing different student needs and ensuring sound learning opportunities for every student. Using a variety of instructional, assessment and evaluation   strategies teachers provide numerous opportunities for students to develop skills of inquiry and communication to acquire marketable business skills while learning fundamentals concepts. Business education curriculum planners in Nigeria except n junior secondary school students who go through the three years junior secondary school business studies programme to acquire ’‘practical business and entrepreneurial skills and attitudes to prepare them for self-employment’’[Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2008]. To equip learners with these skills, they recommend hat teachers employ learner-centered teaching methods such as project work, educational visits, and use of business resource persons, business simulations, group discussions case studies and school based mini enterprises run and operated by students. The findings of this study suggest that teachers and curriculum planners are not singing from the same hymn book, thus the pedagogical practices of business studies teachers are at variance with the expectations of the curriculum planners. Teachers-centered pedagogy is the dominant of instruction while entrepreneurial pedagogies are used sparingly. Teachers seem to be more concerned with completing the business studies syllabus in time for examinations at the expense of imparting business skills and literacy through the use of constructivist pedagogies as prescribed in the syllabus. The findings of this study suggest that the practices of business studies teachers do not confirm to the expectations of curriculum planners in that teacher-centered and not learner-centered pedagogy appears to be the dominant mode of instruction in schools. If business education curriculum planners want their prescriptions translated successfully into practice, they must factor in support structures to ensure that these prescriptions are fully adopted an implemented. There is need for staff development to assist teachers with he implementation of the business education curriculum [Kennedy& Gibson, 2000]. The school inspectorate, the National Business Studies Panel and School administrators should monitor and ensure that the delivery of business education is done according to stipulated curriculum and set standards as well as enforce the fulfillment of pedagogical practices set in the syllabus. If teachers are deviating from prescribed teaching methodologies, it is the responsibility of school administrators and heads of business studies departments to ensure that the best standards in he teaching and bearing of the subject are complied with. Resourcing for the delivery of business education should include the provision of computer laboratories. In Nigeria, Information Communication Technology (ICT) is a major focus of the country’s economic agenda and the Revised National Policy on Education [2004] highlighted he need for all learners to be taught computer skills at all levels of school. Nigeria has made a tremendous effort to provide resources for its junior secondary schools and this is evidenced by the fact that all junior senior secondary schools have fully equipped computer laboratories [Isaac 2007]. Information communication technology (ICT) has considerable potentials in the business classroom [Barrington 2004] in that it can be used whilst undertaking a variety of classroom activities such as research assignments, key business applications like spreadsheets, data bases and presentations, including the use of internet as a resource for acquiring knowledge. The internet opens up vast knowledge sources, is available around the clock and it optimally supports student- centered teaching [Motschinig- Pitrik, 2001]. Future studies might do well to use multi-method research designs to examine more fully the current availability of instructional materials for business studies teachers including their weakness with a view to proffering pedagogical models and approaches that would help o maximize learner acquisition of business skills, literacy and competencies. Such studies could also focus on identifying specific intervention strategies that will assist teachers to employ recommended pedagogical practices in business studies classrooms.

2.2   Factors that Affect Learning of Business Studies An understanding of factors that affect learning will be of great help to you as a teacher. According to Daugherty (2006), differences in abilities, readiness, motivation and interest affect learning. As a teacher, according to farrant (2006), you must know the pre – requisite for efficient learning which are readiness, motivation and involvement. Ideal learning conditions therefore include mental, physical and social readiness of the learner, motivation and activities according to MCNICOI (2003), students are likely to learn, when they are willing, curious, inspired, have a goal to achieve, derive satisfaction from learning, have capacity to learn, are actively involved, have favourable social atmosphere and classroom conditions are satisfactory. Motivation: the degree of motivation or student has for the learning task could affect his learning. The desire to learn is inherent in all normal persons. You must motivates your students to use their innate ability you should apply incentives and arouse their increase for the purpose of causing them to perform in a desired way remember your goal is to bring about a desire arrange in the behavior of your students you must devise as many ways as you can to create within each students, the desire to learn. This is basically what teaching is Interest: interest in a subject, does not guarantee success in the subject, studies have however shown a very high degree of correlation between interest in a subject and success in learning, it is true that learning can take place without apparent interest. It is also a known fact that interest in a subject makes the learning to take place easier, faster and more lastingly. Readiness: this refers to the physical, mental, emotional or social maturation of the learner as well as foundation for the building of new learning. 2.3   Overview of Learning Theories An overview of learning theories and their implication to teaching and learning. Learning theories are creative attempt to find out how learning takes place in the learners and the means by which it can be improved. According to Daugherty  (2004), learning is a change in an individual through some form of experience. It is a known fact that learning takes place easier, faster and lastingly under some conditions than others. Teaching methods are the strategies adopted and used y teachers in transferring learning in a classroom teaching learning process. Learning theories which have dominated educational thinking today can be traced to four major schools: classical behaviorists (the stimulus – responses bonds group), purposive behaviorist, cognitive theories and gestalt theories be meaningful the theories of learning propounded by psychologists such as Pavlov, thorn dike, Tolman, Skinner, Dewey and Ausubel, and Gestalt theorists to mention a few shall be mentioned here. However those of Thorndike and Tolman shall be examined as well as their significance to business education of which business studies is a part. Teaching method according to Daugherty (2004), are the broad pattern of thinking which a teacher follows to help his students reach the goal set for the course in other words, they are the strategies adopted and used by teacher in transferring learning in a classroom teaching learning process. A good teaching method should not aim at teaching too much or too little at any given lesson what you have prepared should be adequate for the lessons period. What should determine the content of a lesson include the age, interest, ability, maturity of the learners as well as the nature of the subject matter to be taught. 

 

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AVAILABILITY OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS FOR THE TEACHING OF BUSINESS STUDIES IN NIGERIA



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