Background of the study  

In recent times, education stakeholders have expressed their concern over the poor performance of students in business education at the school certificate examination. Some blamed the school administrators (principals) and the teachers while some blamed the students themselves and the parents. Whoever is to be blamed, the fact remains that, the school and its organizational management have a correlation with the academic performance of the students. Leith (2004). The school principal who is the manager has a lot of roles to play in the academic achievement of the students. Ruth et all (1979) Wekessa (1997) Olagboye (2004) noted that to improve students’ performance, principals or managers are required first to improve the management of the schools.

This can be done if the principal set a clear vision for the schools, exhibit instructional leadership, and also allow for team spirit in the school. Lack of vision in the management of school often leads to an imbalance in the allocation of and use of resources. This is why Ayot and Briggs (1992) noted that the academic achievement of students depends on effective leadership. The principal is the chief executive of the school. He has some administrative tasks to perform such as supervision of instructional programs in the school, management of school personnel, management of school finance, maintenance of student welfare services, and establishment of good community relations. His or her failure to perform these tasks effectively and efficiently will affect the tone of the school and the achievement of academic goals. (Nwankwo 1982 and Peretomode 1991). In the discharge of these tasks, the manager is expected to plan, control, organize, coordinate and direct human and non-human resources in the organization in order to achieve the goals of the organization. (Adeleke 2001 and Onifade 2004) Nigeria's education system is largely examination-oriented. Hence the poor performance of students in examinations is always attributed to the school administration where the principal is at the helm of affairs.

The poor performance of students in business studies had been largely attributed to poor management of the principals. It appears that most principals fail to monitor, and disseminate current information on educational issues and modern teaching techniques to teachers in the schools. This has been a source of concern to the government and education stakeholders. Observation shows that most schools both in rural and urban are not well equipped with learning materials, enough teachers, computers were not available which could have prepared the students for electronic examination in the future Even in some urban schools where computers were available the epileptic supply of electricity has limited their use. A consideration of the above posed a challenge to the administrative effectiveness of the principal. The inability of some principals to encourage team spirit, among teachers, poor human relations with teachers, and inconsistent classroom visitations are all hindrances to effective learning and teaching. A principal who properly exercises his or her leadership responsibility will enable his or her school to realize good academic achievement. This argues the fact that effective management of the organization is a prime contributory factor in achievement (Chitiavi, 2002). Teachers are not exempted from the controversy on the poor performance of students in secondary school examinations. The poor attitude of teachers to teaching and lack of professional development contribute to the poor academic performance of students. A critical look at the students’ academic performances in business studies over the year shows that much work is expected to be performed by principals and teachers in order to improve the level of academic performance in secondary schools in the state. It is against this background that this study investigated the role of principal’s organizational management on the academic achievement of students in secondary schools in the Rivers States.

Statement of the general problem

The poor performance of students in business studies has persisted despite the fact secondary schools are assumed to be having well-qualified students from primary schools, trained and qualified principals. The reasons for poor performance cannot be easily discerned without focused investigation. This implies that much work is being expected to be performed by teachers and principals in order to improve the level of students’ academic performance in secondary schools. This study therefore aimed at focusing on the role of the principal who is at the helm of affairs of the school on the academic achievement of the students in secondary school.

Aims and objectives of the study

The following are the aims and objectives for undertaking this study

To know if principal management influences students’ performance in business studies in ObioakporLGA To know if educational reprocess influences students’ performance in business studies in ObioAkpor LGA To recommend ways of ensuring high students’ performance in business studies in ObioAkpor LGA.

Research Questions

The following research questions guided the study.

What are the principals’ organization skills that influenced the academic achievement of the student? Which academic activities do the principal need to participate in to help improve the academic performance of students? Does educational reprocess influence students’ performance in Business studies?

Research hypothesis

H0: principal management does not significantly influence students’ academic performance in business studies. H1:principal management significantly influences students’ academic performance in business studies.

Significance of the study

This study would be useful to secondary school management in ensuring improved academic performance across the secondary schools in the local government. This study would be useful to the state ministry of education i9n ensuring the admission of quality teachers which should enhance the academic performance of students in business studies. This study would be useful to stakeholders in education.

Scope of the study

This study is on principal management and educational reprocess and students’ performance in business studies in obio/akporlga of rivers state.

Limitation of the study

Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, and interview).Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted to the research work.

Definition of terms

Business studies: the study of economics and management, especially as an educational topic. Reprocess:to treat or prepare (something) by a special method again Management: the process of dealing with or controlling things or people.

REFERENCE Adeleke, A. (2001). Management Concepts and Applications Lagos: Concept Publication Limited. Adeyemi, T.O. (2008). Organizational Climate and teachers’ job performance in primary schools in Ondo State, Nigeria. An analytical survey. Asian Journal of Information Technology 7(4) 138-145 Medwell online Publications: Pakistan. Adeyemi T.O. (2009). The effective management of primary schools in Ekiti State. Nigeria an analytical assessment. Education Research and Reviews (ERR) 4(2) 048-056. Nairobi: Academic Journals. Kenya. Ayeni, A.J. (2010). Teachers’ instructional task performance and principals’ supervisory roles as correlates of quality assurance in secondary schools in Ondo State. Doctoral Dissertation, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife Nigeria. Ayot H.O & H. Briggs (1992) Economics of Education, Nairobi: Educational Research and publications. Chitiavi M.J. (2002). Guidance and Counseling series – School Administration, Nairobi: Kenya Federal Government of Nigeria (2004) National Policy on Education. 3rd Edition Lagos: Federal Ministry of Education NERDC 7-21. Franenkel R.J. and E.N. Wallen, (1993). How to Design and Evaluate Research, 4th Edition: Illinois, F.E., Peacock Publisher, Inc. 



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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper

    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

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