EXPLORING THE DETERMINANTS OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP AMONG GRADUATES IN NIGERIA

EXPLORING THE DETERMINANTS OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP AMONG GRADUATES IN NIGERIA 

2.1    PREAMBLE  

In Nigeria, both state and federal government are now placing much emphasis on the promotion of indigenous small scale enterprises with a view to encouraging entrepreneurship. This study addresses critical issues like life aspirations, likely source of financial capital, entrepreneurial orientation, attitude towards work, intention towards becoming an entrepreneur, subjective norms underlying this intention, perceived behavioral control, behavioral beliefs, nor mature belief and control beliefs others. Johannisson (1991) and Auto et al. (1997) scored the positive impacts of students' perception of entrepreneurship as a career choice, along with the role played by the research has sourced the importance of the social status of entrepreneurial activities and situation. Entrepreneurship education and influences both currents behavior and future intentions. Kolverldmoen (1997) looks at the significant differences between students who have taken entrepreneurship courses and those who have not.

2.2    CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK  

Entrepreneurship has been described as a creative and innovative response to the environment. Meredith et al (1991) look at an entrepreneur as an individual who has the ability to see and evaluate business opportunities, gather the necessary resource to take advantage of them, and initiate appropriate action to ensure success. This turn of events has been mirrored by a rising academic interest in entrepreneurship, understood as the creation and establishment of new independent firms in early empirical research this interest was very much focused on the psychological characteristics of business founders, although the research was not close to contemporary development in psychology. A trait approach was often employed, and almost endless loots of the entrepreneurial traits were suggested (Hornaday 1982) it eventually turned out that this line of research was unable to give more than a small fraction of the answer to the question “what makes people found new firm?”

2.3    NEED, SCOPE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF ENTREPRENEURSHIPEntrepreneurship was been recognized as an essential ingredient of economic development. In the early 16th century in France, the term entrepreneur was used for army leaders. It was applied to their business for the first time 18th century to designate a leader who buys and sells goods at certain prices. Entrepreneurship has never played a central role for years, the main focus of economic has been on the allocation of resources and how it is achieved by the market or by the government. It is only recently with the revival of interest in the question of economic growth Schumpeter’s view has required greater silence. Empirical research on entrepreneurship in economic is surprisingly limited. The need for autonomy (or independence) is one of the most frequently stated reasons for founding a firm or wanting to do so (Bamberger, 1986; Cromie 1988; Scot and Twomey, 1988).

2.4    ENTREPRENEURIAL TRAITSNoel (2001) explained specifically the importance of entrepreneurship emphasizing the development of entrepreneurial intention and the perception of self-efficiency. The students in the sample had all taken an entrepreneurship education program and were graduated in entrepreneurship, management, or another discipline. Noel’s finding at least partially confirmed the assumption that entrepreneurship graduates were more likely to create new businesses and have a higher level of intention and a more developed perception of self-efficiency than students in the other two groups. McClelland (1961) in his work identifies the need for achievement (called n- achievement) to be linked with the entrepreneurial spirit necessary to taken risks to develop a country's economy. He also said entrepreneurs are likely to do well if they possess the following traits.

RISK TAKING: entrepreneurs are risk-takers and are very calculative when a challenge occurs in a business they encourage themselves.  But they don’t gamble.  Entrepreneurs tend not to get involved in the business of low quality because there is a lack of challenge and avoid the high-risk situations because they want to succeed. They like overcoming challenges. A risk situation occurs when you are required to make a choice between two or more alternatives, whose potential outcomes are not must be subjectively evaluated. A risk situation involves potential success and potential loll. The greater the possible loss the greater the involved. SELF CONFIDENCE: entrepreneurs have self-confidence in whatever they are doing. They believe that they need to assumed responsibility in other for them to reach their destiny. Entrepreneurs are very optimistic people and have a link for independence. It is this self-confidence, including previous experience, their ability to assume responsibility and to work out for their destiny that makes them venture into private business even when others are staying away from it or are falling. HARD WORK: an entrepreneur is a hard-working individual who is determined to achieve his objective. He put in more effort to make sure that work is done. He makes proper use of official time and private time. He persists in whatever he is doing even when the work is done and the day spent. The entrepreneur is mentally attached to the job. GOAL SETTING: entrepreneurs have an objective, based on their objective they set a goal for themselves. In the attempt to achieve the set goal some appear to be difficult and restless until the goals in their various strategies try to achieve the set goals or objectives.    ACCOUNTABILITY: entrepreneurs love and succeed and work very hard to achieve success in whatever they attempt in the process of achieving the success they sometimes meet with failure. To the entrepreneur growth and profit will lead to stability, expansion, and development of the business. The entrepreneur works as a team, through the collaborative efforts of its staff by getting feedback in other to achieve the objective of the business.  They also have to keep a careful record of their achievement as a result of which they are able to narrate and tell the stories of how they started the business in the beginning. This attitude of record-keeping helps the entrepreneur’s towards planning and high business ethics. He is not just interested in money purse, but in what he is able to achieve with his money. Others may see accountability in terms of profit and growth but he has a different measurement for himself from what others perceive. He is accountable to himself as his entire life depends on him. VERSATILITY: Entrepreneurs tend to be very informational and very versatile, qualities required to ensure that the job gets done properly by themselves and subordinates.

2.5    ENTREPRENEURIAL TASKSEntrepreneurship is concerned with many activities that have to do with the establishment and operation of business enterprise. These activities include identification of investment opportunities to exploit for profit, gathering the resources needed for production and distribution of goods and services, organization and management of human and material resources.

   

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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper


    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

    Click here to complete this article - How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

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