THE EFFECTS OF ENTREPRENEURIAL SKILL ON PRODUCT PORTFOLIO DEVELOPMENT (A STUDY OF MEDIUM SCALE ENTERPRISES IN LAGOS)

ABSTRACT

This research work examined the effects of entrepreneurial skill on product portfolio development of medium scale enterprise in Lagos. It is important for business owners (be it a small medium scale enterprises operator or large scale enterprise), who aspire for optimum success in their endeavour to take cognisance of the essential entrepreneurial skills which will aid the effective achievement of their organization goal and objective. The research design adopted for the study is survey research design. The main instrument used was self administered questionnaires. The data obtained from the questionnaires were analysed using mean, median mode and standard deviation. Two hypotheses were tested using Z-test at 0.05% level of   significance. The analysis done reveal that there is significant relationship between entrepreneurship skills and product portfolio development. Also, co-operation between small medium scale entrepreneurs and research institutes, for exploitation of research findings of these institutes should be encouraged in order to achieve development in general was recommended.

TABLE OF CONTENT

                                                                Pages

Title page                                                                         i      

Certification                                                                     ii

Dedication                                                                                iii

Acknowledgement                                                             iv

Abstract                                                                            v

Table of content                                                                       vi

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   Background of the study                                          1  

1.2   Statement of the problem                                         6   

1.3   Objectives of the study                                            7

1.4   Research of the questions                                         7

1.5   Statements of research hypotheses                           8

1.6   Significance of the study                                          8

1.7   Limitations of the study                                           9

1.8   Definition of terms                                                   9  

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1   Introduction                                                             11

2.2   Theoretical frame work                                             12

2.3   Conceptual framework                                              20  

2.4   Extant literature review on the efficacy of

entrepreneurial skill on organization performance             28  

2.5   Factors that predispose firms to ensure healthy

product portfolio                                                              36  

2.6   Hindrance to entrepreneurial skill development        55  

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.0   Introduction                                                            61  

3.1   Population of the study                                             62           

3.2   Characteristics of population of the study                 62   

3.3   Sampling size/sampling techniques                          62  

3.4   Re statement of research questions                           63           

3.5   Re-statement of research hypotheses                                63           

3.6   Test of reliability/ test of validity                                     64  

3.7   Research design                                                                64  

3.8   Data analysis tool                                                     66

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA ANALYSES OF THE RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND HYPOTHESES

4.1   Introduction                                                             67

4.2   Analysis of part 1                                                      68  

4.3   Analysis of responses to part two of the questionnaire       70

 4.4 Data analysis and presentation of analysis hypotheses      87  

4.5   Discussion of hypotheses                                          90

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1   Introduction                                                             91

5.2   Summary of findings                                                 91  

5.3   Conclusion:                                                              93  

5.4   Recommendations                                                    94

5.5   Limitation of the study                                             95

5.6   Suggestion for future research                                  95            Questionnaire                                                           96  

        Bibliography                                                             100  

Chapter one

introduction

1.1 background of the study:

The success or failure, of any organization product offering(s), be it goods or services, depends immensely on the strategies and technologies used in developing, maintaining and sustaining such products or services in the target market. The extent to which these responsibilities/duties/tasks are successfully carried out is as a result of the unusual skills, experience and ability possessed by the owner (entrepreneur), of the said business organization; to effectively co-ordinate the human and material resources in that organization, in order to achieve the stated organisation objectives either to make profit or community service rendering.

The said responsibility of the ‘entrepreneur’ can be emphasized in the definition given by Edward P. Lazear. According to him, an ‘entrepreneur’ is a generalist who put together terms of people and assembles resources and capital. To do this effectively, they must have a general set of skills.

Although an individual maybe endowed with a set of skills but endowment can be augmented by investment in human capital. Therefore, responsibility of assembling, coordinating, etc. of these said resources cannot be carried out effectively by a mere business owner whether it is a small organization or a large firm.

These said skills, possessed by ‘entrepreneur’, enables them provide products ( in form of goods or services), of great additives, which is second to none in the market of industry; is referred to as the quality that must be possess by an individual to be a successful entrepreneur, and it’s called ‘entrepreneurial skills’.

The term, ‘entrepreneurial’, is an adjective concept that is used to describe the degree of entrepreneurial trait, that an individual possess or exhibit or the pattern of entrepreneurial behaviour, present in an individual activities. Therefore, it can be said that a person who displays some characteristics or habits, typical of an entrepreneur, is said to be ‘entrepreneurial’.

It is possible, that entrepreneurial skills are embodied in the networks with customers, suppliers and other market participants that enhance the outcomes of entrepreneurs. It’s also possible that it is the greater ability to identify markets, set strategy and correctly analyse the various business problems and also enables organization develop their product portfolio.

In enhancing the outcomes of an entrepreneur, a sequential process or procedures must be followed. This is termed as ‘entrepreneurship’.

According to Kuratko and Hodgetts (2001), entrepreneurship is the dynamic process of creating incremental wealth. This wealth is to be created by individuals who assume major risks in terms of equity, time and career commitment of providing value inform of some products or services, which may not be new or unique, but the entrepreneur must place value by securing and allocating the necessary skills and resources.

The focus of this study, is on skills which will also encompass the ability to successfully allocate resources (human and material), for the achievement of the objective.

A skill, can be said to be an organized and coordinated pattern of mental and or physical activity in relation to an object or other display of information usually involving both the receptor and effect or process. It involves having enough ability knowledge and experience to be able to do something well.

Hence, for a person to be regarded as an entrepreneur he/she must possess some certain unusual and personal attributes, behaviour, values and skills or characteristics that allows them to successfully develop, setup, grow, render and maintain a product of great addictive which consumers within the industry sees as second to none. They are referred to as the agent of effective economic changes, an enterprising individual, job creator, the goal getters, etc.

The various skills of entrepreneurs have been classified into three (3), (Linus Osuagwu, 2006). They are ‘technical skills’, ‘business management skills’ and ‘personal entrepreneurial skills’. Technical skills are said to involve such things as writing, listening, oral presentation & communication, monitoring environment, ability to organize, etc. on the other hand, management skills includes those areas involved in starting, developing and managing any enterprise i.e. skills in decision making, marketing, general management/administration, financing, accounting, production, controlling and negotiating which are essential in launching and growing a new business venture.

While personal skills are some skills that differentiate an entrepreneur from a manager i.e. inner control/discipline, risk taking, being innovative, being change-oriented, being persistent, visionary leader, etc.

All these entrepreneurial skills are undoubtedly needed in every facet or an organization product development or product life cycle (development, growth, maturity and decline stages), to ensure the sustainability of the various products to a state of economic stability and growth in order to maximize profit.

For a setup to be referred to as organization, it must have a product offering i.e. goods or services which it is to render to consumer in exchange for profit. An organization product(s) offering, is the set goods or services rendered by the said organization to satisfy the needs and wants of its target market, for the purpose of achieving it stated goals and objective. And if the said product offering is well coordinated, it will lead to high demand and continuous existence of the product and it will automatically bring about the need for the said organization to expand its scope or area of production either by diversifying, integrating, among other option available to the organization. Hence, the need to develop or design a product portfolio arises.

A portfolio is referred to be a set of investment. In other words, an organization product portfolio can be referred to as a set or list of the organization product offering (their investment).

When an entrepreneur owns only a single enterprise, he is referred to as a novice owner/entrepreneur. Habitual-serial owners/entrepreneurs are those that start more than one business consecutively and habitual-portfolio owners/entrepreneurs are those who start more than one business concurrently. As documented by extant relevant literature on small business ownership (Carter, 1999).

‘Portfolio entrepreneurship’ is concerned with the ownership of multiple businesses by a single entrepreneur and it is viewed as a means of reducing or spreading business risk.

The need for entrepreneurial skills for product portfolio development evolved as a result of the strong gaps or lack of qualification often faced by small, medium scale enterprises (SMEs) owners, which leads to some set back such as liquidation, low profit, product offering reaching the decline stage within a short period, etc.

Also, there are certain commonalities that exist between small, medium enterprises and entrepreneurship that allows ‘entrepreneurs’ venture in to the medium scale enterprises and making it their habitat. It has gotten to the point that it has become a common practice or tradition to discuss entrepreneurship in relation to small, medium enterprises. For instance, SMEs requires low capital setup which will encourage ‘entrepreneurs’ who have what it take but low capital to setup a business, they can both be a sole proprietorship business or partnership i.e. joint venture, merger, etc.

Hence, SMEs and entrepreneurship needs to be dealt with or handled hand in hand for development to take place in an organization because most SMEs owners lack the required skills and ability to manage a business to a state of stability and sustainable growth and help build their business activities in to an empire and reduce/minimize the setbacks mostly faced by SMEs.

With the small enterprise inventions, adaption’s and general technological development are possible (Kilby (1965), and Mothweit & Zegveld (1981). Also, Steel and Takasi (1982), note that small enterprises have potentials for absorbing labour while maintaining output. And this objective can be greatly achieved with the help of entrepreneur intervention in SMEs industry through the application of the various entrepreneurial skills.

In other word, if all the necessary entrepreneurial skills are also use and maintain in SMEs it will help greatly in developing their product portfolio. Also due to entrepreneurs ability to perceive new business opportunities in the environment they will be able to expand the business horizon in SMEs and thus develop the organization product portfolio by increasing the set of number of product produced by such organization; if well-coordinated hence product portfolio development.

With all the above explanation of who an entrepreneur is and the skills and abilities they possess, including the weakness of SMEs, one will see that there is need to develop entrepreneurial skill for product portfolio of an organization to be developed mostly in small medium enterprises, which will lead to economic development in general ( at a speedy rate).

1.2: STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

There are thousands of people who have nursed the aspiration to setup their own business(s). for most the prospect remains just a wishful thought, for others, something happens in their live which presents an opportunity, which they perceived or make use of, perhaps an un-expected inheritance; or an event which forces or bring about a change in direction. But having the capital available to start a business is not enough. Even in the case of the trade men who is made redundant and possesses both the technical skills needed to work and the redundancy pay out to start his, surviving in business requires some unique or unusual skills. The problems lies firstly in identifying which specific skills are mostly relevant to the business proposal, and secondly in determining objectively whether or not they are available in the person (entrepreneur to be). In the event that the required skills are not currently available, then those deficient skills must either be developed or imported i.e. by employing an intrepreneur (imported skilled personnel), or going for training (developed skills).

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The aim of this study is to examine the effects of entrepreneurial skill on the development of organizations product portfolio. The specific objectives are to:

  1. Identify the various entrepreneurial skills useful for product portfolio development.
  2. Identify the strength and weakness of entrepreneur(s) in dealing with the challenges of product portfolio development.
  3.   Establish a relevant model for establishing and implementing an effective skill development for small business enterprises.
  4. Make appropriate recommendations for enhancing the development of new skill on product portfolio.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS:

For the purpose of this research work, the following question will enable one to find answer to the patient problem of entrepreneurial skills on product portfolio development. They are:

  1. Do entrepreneurial skills promote product portfolio development?
  2. Does entrepreneurial skill development give room for business innovations?
  3. What effects does lack of skill of entrepreneur has on product portfolio development?
  4. Are entrepreneurial skills curbed dependencies on foreign goods?

1.5 STATEMENTS OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESES:

1.     Ho: there is significant relationship between entrepreneurial skills and product portfolio development.

Hi: there is no significant relationship between entrepreneurial skills and product portfolio development.

2.      Ho: that lack of skill of entrepreneur(s) does have significant relationship on the product quality.

HI: that lack of skill of entrepreneur(s) does have significant relationship on the product quality.

1.6: SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY:

The study considers the effects of entrepreneurial skills on product portfolio development. This will guide owners of businesses, managers, researcher and students in the area of skill development. The study will provide basic understanding of the impact of entrepreneurial skills development in Lagos and Nigeria in general. It will also contribute knowledge as to how business in Nigeria could create and refine their capacity to establish and implement an effective product portfolio for the sustainability of organizations in the future.

1.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY:

The scope of this study is limited or shall be restricted to forty (40) small-medium scale enterprises in Lagos state, specifically in Ojo and Lagos island local government area. Also problems such as funds, sources for appropriate materials and time were encountered.

1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS:

Entrepreneur: He is a risk taker, who buys at a certain price and sells at an uncertain price. He brings all factors of production and resources of both man and materials needed for effective production together.

Skills: Any work-related to learning or training or personal ability that results in enhanced knowledge and aptitude to perform a job.

Products: A product offering of an organization is the goods or services that is provided by the organization to satisfy its consumers’ needs and wants for profit making purpose or community service rendering.

Product development: It is the process of creating new products or enhancing old products to serve the needs and wants of customers who are ready to buy the product or is already purchasing the product.

Market: It is referred to as the group of consumers or organization that is interested in the product offering of the organization, has the resources (fund) to purchase the product and is permitted by law and other regulatory bodies to acquire the product. A potential market or target market is the total population who has interest in acquiring the product. While the penetrated markets are those in the target market who actually purchased the product.

Product portfolio: This is the list of the set or range of products which is being offered by the firm to its market.

Entrepreneurial: Is an adjective concept that is used to describe the degree of entrepreneurial trait that an individual possess or exhibit.

Business: Business is any purposeful activity engaged in by an individual or groups of individual in other to satisfy their customers’ needs and wants in exchange for profit.

Development: It is a state of growth where by a particular individual, community, country, etc. becomes larger, more nature or more advanced.

Small medium enterprises: Are business enterprises that are setup with low capital and less management team.

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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper


    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

    Click here to complete this article - How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

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