FINANCIAL RESOURCE ALLOCATION AND PRINCIPAL ADMINISTRATIVE EFFECTIVENESS IN PUBLIC SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL (OKE ERO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, KWARA STATE AS A CASE STUDY).
Background of the Study
Principals play critical roles in the development of high-quality schools. Therefore only a small body of research links principals directly to student achievement (Hanushek&Rivkin, 2009), a much larger research based documents principals’ effects on school operations, through motivating teachers and students, identifying and articulating vision and goals, developing high performance expectations, fostering communication, allocating resources, and developing organisational structures to support instruction and learning. Principals also affect the instructional quality of schools through the recruitment, development, and retention of teachers (Harris, Rutledge, Ingle & Thompson, 2006).
Educational Resources refers to the materials and facilities that can be used to encourage, promote and facilitate teaching and learning activities. Educational Resources also refers to non-human and non- financial resources which include all movable and immovable materials which are used for teaching, learning and other school activities.
According to Emetarom (2015), educational resources are material resources in the school which are physical and spatial enablers of teaching and learning which will increase the production of results. When combined with other resources in adequate quality and quantity, constitutes vital desired educational goals.
Owuamanam (2015) noted that the inadequacy of infrastructural facilities is one of the major problems facing the Nigerian educational system. Asiyei (2014) opined that school facilities include the entire school plant administrators, teachers and students harness, allocate, and utilise for the smooth and efficient management of any educational institution. In educational Institution, school facilities constitute essential inputs which guarantee favourable learning environment and enhance the achievement of educational objectives. In the school, educational resources serves as pillars of support for effective teaching and learning thereby making the process meaningful and purposeful.
When educational resources are properly combined and appropriately used, they help teachers to teach more efficiently and effectively and the learners will learn faster (Adesanya 2015).Resources meant for learning should be presented in a manner as to provide students with opportunity to become actively involved intellectually, perceptually and physically.
The human resources in education include the teacher, the teacher’s aides, where they are used, the learners, even though it is not often realised and the people in the community whose special skills and knowledge can be used for instructions. That is the resource person. It is how ever pertinent to note that the later category of human resources is not much used especially in this country(Nigeria).In the other hand, the non- human resources include the wide range and variety of printed and non- printed instructional materials, equipment, mechanical devices and facilities that are used to facilitate effective teaching and learning. Examples are the printed materials and different types of books, journals, magazines etc. A few of the well- known non- printed materials are films, slides, films strips, pictures, charts, boards and posters. In the range of equipment are the different projectors, cameras, tape recorders etc. The facilities include the library or a learning resource centres, the science laboratory, the language laboratory and of course, the classroom. Some of which may have to be specially designed and equipped for effective use of instructional materials that needed projections (Adesanya 2015).
Akinyemi (2016), stressed that it will be obscured or even meaningless to discuss educational resources without reference to the curriculum. This is because educational resources are only relevant and meaningful to the extent that they can be used to facilitate the achievement of curriculum objection. The organisation and the use of educational resources and curriculums developmental activities should therefore be seen as intrinsically related activities.
Decision about the use of resource should be made at two crucial stage in curriculum development. There are the stages of curriculum planning and development and curriculum implementation at the planning and development stages. It should be possible to be identify and specify the resource that will be needed for effective implementation of the curriculum. There are three main categories of resources for identification and specifications; Human Resources, Instructional Materials which include equipment and facilities.
At the implementation stage, the teacher makes the decision about the actual use of educational resources most of the time. However, schools must be in a position to help and encourage teachers to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of their instructional effort. Learners too must be encouraged to make good use of resources to help learn faster and better. All these and more can be achieved to a greater extent if the resources are made available. The teachers and the learners know how to use the resources appropriately and the teacher must have some basic knowledge about the selection and evaluation of instructional materials.
As educational resources are used to facilitate the achievement of curriculum aims and objectives for maximum effort, however, their uses must be properly planned and organised. The traditional way of doing with regards to instructional material has been largely through the library.
The use of human resources except the teacher and because of their vocal role in education has been an immerse benefit to the Nation as a whole. Presently, the library as a way of organising and using Educational Materials is considered inadequate. Many people in education seem to share the view. Agun (2016) explained that the library as it is traditionally conceived organised and run, cannot adequately meet the information needed and the educational realities of today, Based on the above, the studies intends to investigate financial resource allocation and principal administrative effectiveness in public Secondary schools in Oke-Ero Local Government Area, Kwara State.
The use of a set of administrative strategies by principals is informed by the fact that principals are to bring all round development into the school, in order to improve students’ academic performance. They must be able to adopt some administrative strategies and also evaluate their teachers in order to ascertain the strengths and weakness of the instructional delivery system for better academic performance. However, gaps in the principals’ Administrative strategies will no doubt cause set-back in teaching-learning process.
There is a growing concern of the society about the realization of secondary education objectives perhaps due to the observation that some principals could no have been using some administrative strategies that could facilitate better performance of students in public examinations. Findings from literature (Ayeni 2010; Baldoni, 2003; Sushila 2004; Ayeni 2012; Lydiah and Nasongo 2009; Ayeni&Akinfolarin 2014) revealed that students’ academic performance is being affected by many problems. By implication, there is a greater challenge ahead of principals partly because of existing gaps and inadequacies in theirin their leadership and supervisory duties . From the researchers point of view, principals should demonstrate certain strategies to move the school forward because of the numerous problems the schools are now facing which are too complex and too big for a principal to cope with. Baldoni, (2003) noted that we live in a rapidly changing world in which the pace of change is likely to increase. What we teach, what we learn and how we deliver and manage the process cannot be immuned from change.
The percentage of students who obtained credit level passes in five subjects and above including English and Mathematics was about 25% in Nigeria (Quality Education Assurance Agency 2010). In 2011 May/June Senior School Certificate Examination conducted by West African Examination Council, only 30.99% of the 1,540,250 candidates obtained Credit level passes and above in five subjects including English and Mathematics (Owadie, 2011). Again in 2012, May/June west African Senior School Certificate Examination 649,156 (38.81%) of the 1,672,224 candidates that sat for the examination obtained 5 credit level passes and above in subjects including English Language and Mathematics in the 36 states of the federation and Federal capital territory (Owadie, 2012). The poor performance of students in examination could be largely attributed to poor administrative strategies by principals.
Finance as a resource has remained a controversial issue at all levels of education in Nigeria. According to Olabanji and Alaka (2010) resource allocation is one of the most challenging tasks that our educational system especially in secondary level of education faces whether they are in the early stage of reform or years into sustaining improvement. Since the economic downturn in the eighties (80s), the Nigerian education sector has suffered unprecedented setbacks in resource allocation especially in funding. Oweh (2013) affirms that education sector in Nigeria still face the problem of inadequate funding with regard to the benchmark advocated by UNESCO that all members countries ought to channel at least 26% of their annual budget to education alone.
Statement of the Problem
It is a fact that there are series of related studies on the principals as the head of the school, but it appears that there are no sufficient researches on teacher’s job performance. The researcher therefore considered it necessary to carryout a study on the relationship between principal’s administrative effectiveness and financial resources allocation particularly in public secondary schools in Oke-Ero Local Government Area, Kwara state. Principals of secondary schools as a result of their positions set up the tone of the school in respect of their behaviour, but some of them are not performing to expectation as they only have academic qualifications but do not possess the necessary managerial skills that would enable them function effectively, also some teachers are performing below expectations since they do not possess teaching qualifications and so contributed to poor teaching standards(Lavigna,2002).
Two parameters that are commonly used to determine school effectiveness are students’ results especially in standardized tests, and their behaviour or performance after school (Ijaiya, 2008). Senior secondary school examination results, only 25.99% i.e. 356, 981 out of 1,427,924 had five credits including Mathematics and English Language. For the National Examination Council (NECO) which was released in 2009, only 10% or 126,500 of the 1,200,765 candidates had five credits that qualified them for admission into higher institution (Unilorin Bulletin, Nov. 2009). In order to realise the educational goals and the school systems funds and facilities are required for the various activities of the school programme as well as for the extra curriculum activities. The financial situation of the secondary school education sector is far from been adequate. The inadequate funding of this level of Education account for deployable condition of other education resources on the schools. Hence, the school are faced with several problems such as inadequate modern classrooms, the available classroom are poorly furnished, inadequate of functional library and laboratory, inadequate qualified teacher, insufficient of modern infrastructural facilities and instruction materials. The unconducive school environment occasioned by inadequate resources has adverse effect on effective management of the materials.
The researcher therefore, intends to investigate the influence of financial resources allocation on the principal administrative effectiveness in public secondary schools in Oke-Ero Local Government Area, Kwara State.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to investigate financial resource allocation and principals administrative effectiveness in selected public senior secondary schools in Oke-Ero Local Government Area, Kwara State. Specifically, the purposes of study are to:
i. determine the adequate financial resource allocation to public secondary for principal administrative effectiveness in Oke- Ero Local Government Area, Kwara State.
ii. examine the adequate of income generation from handwork on the influence of principal administrative effectiveness in OkeEro Local Government Area, senior secondary school Kwara State.
iii. Investigate the level of PTA levies participation on principal administrative effectiveness in OkeEro Local Government Area senior schools, Kwara State.
iv. find out the adequacy of philanthropists donation on the principal administrative effectiveness in Oke-Ero Local Government Area senior secondary school, Kwara State.
v. investigate the principal administrative effectiveness on school administration in Oke-Ero Local Government Area, senior secondary school Kwara state.
The study intends to provide answers to the following research questions:
i. Are there adequate Financial Resource Allocation by the government to Oke- Ero senior Secondary Schools Kwara State?
ii. Are there enough income generation from handwork to influence principal administrative effectiveness in OkeEro senior secondary schools Kwara State?
iii. What is the level of PTA levies participation on principal administrative effectiveness in OkeEro senior secondary schools, Kwara State?
iv. How adequate are philanthropist donations to influence principal administrative effectiveness in OkeEro Senior secondary schools, Kwara state?
v. Does principal administrative effectiveness has any influence on school administration in OkeEro Local Government Area senior secondary schools, Kwara State?
Ho: There is no significant relationship between financial resource allocation and principal administrative effectiveness in public secondary school in OkeEro Local Government Area, Kwara State.
Ho: There is no significant relationship between financial resource allocation and principal administrative effectiveness in public secondary schools in ` OkeEro Local Government area, Kwara State.
Ho1: There is no significant relationship between Hand Work and principal administrative effectiveness in senior secondary school in Oke-Ero Local Government Public senior secondary schools.
Ho2: There is no significant relationship between principal administrative effectiveness and school administration in Oke- Ero local Government public senior secondary schools.
Ho3: There is no significance relationship between Parent Teacher Association levies and principal administrative effectiveness in Oke-Ero Local Government Public senior secondary schools.
Ho4: There is no significance difference between philanthropist donation and principal administrative effectiveness.
Ho5: There is no significant relationship between financial resource allocation and principal administrative effectiveness in public senior secondary school in Oke-Ero Local Government Area Kwara State.
Scope of the Study
The geographical coverage of the study is Oke-Ero Local Government Area of Kwara State. While it context is resource allocation and management in Public senior secondary schools. The study covered all secondary schools teachers of the selected schools in Oke-Ero Local Government Area of Kwara State within the year 2017. But for the sake of the research work, the study will be limited to consider ten different public senior secondary schools. The schools considered are:
1. Ayedun Muslim College, Ekan-Meje
2. Anglican Grammar School, Ilale.
3. Babalola Memorial Grammar School,(C.A.C) OdoOwa
4. Fatimah Community College, Ekan-Meje.
5. Government Secondary School, IdofinOdo-Ashe.
6. Idofin High School, Idofin-Igbana.
7. Iloffa Comprehensive High School, Iloffa.
8. Iloffa Grammar School, Iloffa.
9. Jaamat Comprehensive High School, Odo-Owa.
10. Orofa Comprehensive High School, Odo-Owa.
Significance of the Study
The study is expected to be useful to the education authority towards provision of adequate resources in the public senior secondary schools. It would also be useful to curriculum planners towards information of strategies for development of public senior secondary schools. It would assist the students towards their academic performance in public schools. School principals and teachers are important factors in the school system and their influence on school effectiveness cannot be overemphasized. Hence, the need to find out the relationships among principals managerial behaviour and teachers job performance being part of the major variables that could contribute to school effectiveness.
The study also intends to assist the teachers towards qualitative teaching learning activities in the public senior secondary schools. It would serves as a useful resources to students of education and those already in the field to further enhance their knowledge. The study would guide parents in their choice of schools for their children.
Definition of Terms
Resources: refer to education resources such as facilities, equipment and personnel (Principal Teachers and Students)in the public secondary schools in Oke-Ero Local Government Area, Kwara State
Resources Allocation: refer to the distribution or availability of educational materials such as financial, human, physical and materials in public secondary schools in Oke-Ero Local Government Area, Kwara State
Public schools: refers to schools that are managed and financed by the government in public secondary schools in Oke-Ero Local Government Area, Kwara State.
School effectiveness: refers to the extent to which the stipulated goals and objectives of the school have been realized in terms of students academic performance in Oke-Ero Local Government Area, Kwara State.
Principal: refers to the person who co-ordinates the affairs of the school, he supervises the activities of the subordinates in the school which includes the teaching staff, non-teaching staff and the students in public secondary school in Oke-Ero Local Government Area, Kwara State
Administrative effectiveness: refers to the degree to which objectives are achieved and the extent to which targeted problems are solved in senior public secondary school in OkeEro Local Government Area, Kwara State.
Hand Work: Thisis a work done with the hands and not by machines
Philanthropists: refer to person who seeks to promote the welfare of others, especially by the generous donation of money to good causes in Senior Secondary School in Oke-Ero Local Government Area, Kwara State.
PTA Levies: Parent-Teacher Association (PTA) refers to formal organization composed of parents, teachers and staff that is intended to facilitate parental participation in a school in Oke-Ero Local Government Area, Kwara State..