ADMINISTRATORS' SUPERVISORY SKILLS AND TEACHER'S JOB PERFORMANCE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS (A CASE STUDY OF ABA SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ABIA STATE)
This study was aimed at investigating the level of application of quality assurance in public and private secondary schools in Aba municipality of Abia State Nigeria. The systems theory and the human relation theory x and x McGregor and scientific management of Frederick Taylor were used as foundation of the study, four research questions were raised and covered of four research hypothesis to pilot the study. A sample of 144 teachers was drown from seven public and secondary school in the Local Government Area of study this was carried out using the simple random sampling technique. Twenty (20) teacher were selected from of the selectee secondary schools the four hypothesis were analyzed using Pearson product moment correlation (coefficient and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The findings rejected all four null hypothesis and the alternate hypothesis upheld, revealing that application of school facilities modern technology teachers welfare condition and instructional supervision significantly relate to quality assurance in public and private secondary schools. It was recommended that the government should provide the basic facilities for schools to enable them meet up with the era of globalization.
1.1 Background to the study
The importance of Administrators’ Supervisory stalls in Secondary School in Aba municipality of Abia State cannot be over view Administrators in Secondary Schools are leaders, (Bikpong 2002) indicated that leadership deals with having a comprehensive view of the activities’ and problems of the institutions; with view in mind, the Administrators as a head of a organization of teacher’s in schools system has the function of conversation with the teachers in order to improve learning, with this method the students’ through instruction supervision they sees instructional supervision as one of the process where by school administrators try to achieve a meaningful standards of performance and results, instructional supervision is quality tool control in the system activities of school administrators which directed to primarily the achievement of appropriate expectation of educational system according to Nakpodia (2011).
Peretomode, (2004) in view that instructional supervision is seen as activities carried out by the administrators to inhence instruction at all levels of the school system –Dittirainga, 1999 state that the role of administrators is to facilitate the implementation of the various Leaving Situation Teachers where new or old on the job need necessary support in implementing the instructional programmes’ Administrators as a school heads, need to provide effective support to teachers’ they have to be involves in the implementation of instructional programmes by over viewing that teachers are doing with the student.
It is an administrators he should devote himself to supervise the teaching learning process in his schools.
The administrators as the supervisor is the one who oversees the activities’ of teachers’ and other workers’ in the school system to ensure that they improve to the general accepted administrators’ and practice of education. Denga (1986) sees’ administrators as some one who’s provide “supervision” to the school in terms of perceiving deniable objectives, maintaining a balance in the curriculum and rendering help to teachers regarding teaching methods are other instructional problems that the encounter.
The National Policy on Education (2004) states that, to ensure quality control in the school, it is necessary to have good teachers and supervisors. The primary responsibility of the supervisors’ is to see that high standards are maintained and the schools are run in accordance with the land down regulation.
The Ministry of Education, State Universal Basic Education and the Secondary Schools Board should appoint administrators to conform and maintain standard in our school through their supervisory function. The board appoints people that are mainly experienced in the teaching profession for the purposes of supervising the teaching learning activities.
According the Peretomode (2004) suggested that the following purpose of instructional behaviour or supervisors in the school
a. To directly influence the behaviour of teachers and the teaching processes employed to promote student learning.
b. To ensure that each individual teachers within the school system has been performing the job of which he was scheduled.
c. To co-operatively develop favourable climate for teachers performance teaching and learning.
The use of instructional supervision skill is a means of helping the teachers’ cope with the problem of large student population and development in the education setting. Instructional supervision skills are important. The skills help to inhence the teachers’ on their job performance and to facilitated effective materials , example, micro teaching and workshops, classroom communication, students’ evaluation classroom management, inter-school visitation among others. In this study, the researcher to find out how that the above mention supervision skill can influence teachers’ job performance in secondary schools in Aba municipality.
1.2 Theoretical framework
1. Theory X and Y McGregor
2. Scientific management theory
Theory X and theory Y
These theories deals with human motivation created and developed by Douglas McGregor at the MIT stoan school of Administrative in the 1960s that have been used in human resource Administrative, organizational behaviour, and organizational development. The describe two contrasting models of workforce motivation.
Theory X of McGregor
In this x and y theory, Administrative assumes teacher are inherently lazy and will avoid job if they can and that they inherently dislike job performance. As a result of this, Administrators believes that teachers’ need to be closely supervised and comprehensive systems of controls developed.
A hierarchical structure is needed with narrow span of control at each and every level. According to this theory teachers’ will show little a inbition without a enticing incentive program and will avoid responsibility when ever they can according to Dr. Kumi Mark, if the organizational goals are to be met, theory x Administratively heavily on threat and coercion to gain their teachers’ compliance. Believes of this theory lead to instruct, highly restrictive supervision, and a punitive atmosphere. The theory x Administrative tends to believe that everything must end in blaming some one. He or she thinks all prospective teachers are only out for themselves.
A theory x Administrative believesthat his or her teachers do not really want to work, that they would rather avoid responsibility and the it is the Administrative’s job to structure the work end energize the teachers.
One major flow of this Administrators style is it is much more likely to cause diseconomies of scale in large picture.
In this theory, Administrators assumes teachers may be ambitious and self-motivated and exercise self-control. It is believed that teachers enjoy their mental and physical job performance. According to than job is a natural as play.
The possess the ability for creative problem solving, that their talents are under used in most organizations. Given the proper conditions.Theory Y Administrators believer that teachers will learn to seek out and accept responsibility and to exercise self control and self-direction in accomplishing objectives to which they are committed.
A theory Y Administrators believes that, give the right condition, most people will want to do will at work. They believe that the satisfaction of doing a good job in strong motivation. Many people interpret theory Y as a positive set of beliefs about teacher.
A close reading of the human side of enterprise reveals that McGregor simply argues for Administrators to be opened to a move positive view of teacher job performance and the possibilities that, this creates. He climate of trust with teachers that is required for theory Administrative to develop the climate of trust with teacher that is required for teacher development.
It’s teacher development that is a crucial aspect of any organization. This would include Administrators management openly with subordinates, minimizing the difference between supervisor subordinate relationship, creation comfortable environment in which subordinate can develop and use their abilities this environment would include sharing of decision making so that subordinates have a say in decision that influence them.
Theory x and theory combined McGregor
Has identified theory x and theory y differently for the basic characteristics stated previously in the above sections of what these theories represent- theory x assumptions are that individuals dislike their careers. Theory x people have to be supervised.
As for theory y assumption are that individuals like their careers and willing to take part in responsibility. Theory y people don’t need supervision and can be expected to turn good productive value in their jobs.
1.3 Statement of the problem
In Nigeria, education is on the concurrent list of government and this makes the issue of instructional supervision to vary from one state to another. However, some states have adequate arrangement in place to effectively supervise instruction at all level of education particularly in secondary school whereas some states failed to put necessary machineries in place to effectively supervise instruction in their secondary schools.
Currently most administrators neglected their duty as educational supervisors but concentrated on managing and administrating schools, instead. Cawelti and Reavis (1980) found that adminstrators spent less than a third of their time in supervision. They reported to have used only 20% of their time for visiting classes, curriculum related task and staff development activities. Ministry directives (No 3/1987) clearly stated that as professional leaders, school administrators are responsible for successful curriculum implementation in their schools. This objective could not possibly achieve unless the administrators systematically supervise and make it a top priority to do so.
Although, supervision can help to improve the effectiveness of teaching and learning activities in classrooms, but not without problems. Abdul, (1988b) observed that some kind of conflict drifted the teacher being observed and the Administrators apart. Probably due to teachers attitude and perception that the administrators are under qualified and from a different discipline of studies. However,this study intend to evaluate the influence of administrators supervisory skills and teachers job performance in secondary schools of Aba south local government Area of Abia State.
1.4 Purpose of the study
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of Administrators supervision skills and teachers’ job performance in teaching effectiveness in Abi municipality.
Specifically, the study was design to find out.
1. Administrators’ supervisory skills and teachers’ job performance use of instructional materials
2. Administrators’ supervisory skills and teachers competence in classroom management
3. Administrators’ supervisory skill and teachers competence in students’ evaluation
4. Administrators’ supervisory skills and teachers disciplinary abilities.
1.5 Research questions
The following research questions were design to give guide to the study. They include.
1. To what extent does Administrators supervisory skills affect of teacher’s job performance using of instructional material?
2. How does Administrators’ supervisory skills influence teachers’ performance in classroom management.
3. To what extent does administrators’ supervisory skills relate to teachers’ competence in students evaluation?
4. How does Administrators’ supervisory skill influence teachers’ ability to discipline student?
1.6 Statement of hypothesis
To establish the direction of this study the following hypothesis where formulated.
1. There is no significant relationship between Administrators’ supervisory skills and teachers’ job performance using instructional materials.
2. There is no significant relationship between Administrators’ supervisor skills and teachers’ performance in classroom management
3. There is no significant relationship between Administrators’ supervisory skills and teachers’ competence in student evaluations
4. There is no significant relationship between Administrators’ supervisory skills and teachers job performance in disciplinary abilities.
1.7 Significance of the study
We believed that this study may lead to the revelation that some administrator approaches in their supervisory skills may not improve with the school setting and he may decide to change his approach based on what may emerge from these studies.
The involves helping teachers’ to be properly prepared and be guided before coming to the class to enable him/her successful carried out his assignment of teaching and learning. To meet up with the expection of Nigeria educational philosophy.
For student, the finding would be to them, for it would stand as a basic for onward day to day teaching which help enhance adequate preparation by teachers as they are assessed by the Administrators. It’s expected that this study will surely lead to improve teaching and learning by teachers and students’.
1.8 Assumption of the study
The following assumptions were made as a direction to the expected variables of the study;
1. It is assured that the variables of this study are measurable
2. Administrators supervisory skills influence teacher’s teaching performance in secondary schools in Aba south
1.9 Scope of the study
The study will be limited to the public secondary schools in Aba municipality in Abia state.
1.10 Definition of term
a. Administrators: Administrators are capable men and woman appointed by Secondary Schools Boards to head the Secondary School system.
b. Supervision: This involves the mechanism us by expected role and norms of the organization in order to achieve the establish aim and objectives of the organization.
c. Skill: These are method or various method use to accomplish a goal
d. Teachers’: In a school setting are those who interpret the content of the curriculum to the understanding to learners’.
Frederick Taylor scientific management theory
In 1911, Frederick Winslow Taylor published his work, Administrative of scientific management, in which he described how the application of the scientific method to the Administrative of teacher job performance greatly could improve productivity. Scientific Administrative methods called for optimizing the way that tasks were performed and simplifying the jobs enough so that teachers could be trained to perform their specialized sequence of motions in the one “best” way.
Prior to scientific management work was performed by skilled craftsmen who had learned their jobs in lengthy apprenticeships.
They made their own decision about how their job to be performed, scientific Administrative/management took away much of this autonomy and converted skilled crafts into a series of simplified by unskilled teacher who easily could be trained for the tasks.
Toyalor’s four Administrative
1. Replace working by “rule of thumb” or simple habit and common and instead use the scientific method to study work and determine the most efficient way to performance specific task.
2. Rather than simple assign teacher any job, match teacher to their jobs based on capability and motivation and train them to do job at maximum efficiency.
3. Monitor teachers’ job performance, and provide instructions and supervision to ensure that they are using the most efficient ways of doing the job.
4. Allocate the job between Administrators and teachers so that the Administrators spend their tune planning and training allowing the teacher to perform tasks efficiently..