ENTREPRENEURSHIP AS A TOOL FOR POVERTY REDUCTION IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF KWARA CENTRAL SENATORIAL DISTRICT)


ENTREPRENEURSHIP AS A TOOL FOR POVERTY REDUCTION IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF KWARA CENTRAL SENATORIAL DISTRICT)  

ABSTRACT

This study entitled “Entrepreneurship as a tool for poverty reduction in Nigeria, Kwara central senatorial district.” was intended to assess the impact, implementation and evaluating the effectiveness of NDE & NEEDS, especially in relation to policy and strategy formulation, implementation, co-ordination, monitoring, and utilization of human and materials resources. Four hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Related literature on entrepreneurship and poverty reduction strategies and programmes were intensively and extensively reviewed. The study also utilized the survey research and made use of primary source of data collection and analysis. It was found that NDE had to some extent created jobs for the unemployed ones, reduced poverty in the area and generally in Nigeria. Based on the above findings and conclusion, NDE and other stakeholders should develop a dimensional approach towards other effective and efficient poverty alleviation programmes, efforts should be made by government to increase funding and in the areas of implementation, monitoring and evaluation, the government anti-corruption bodies should intensify efforts to deal with and brought to order any person whose misappropriating handling of funds concerning poverty reduction is wanting in Kwara state and Nigeria as a whole.

                                                                           TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page………………………………………………………………………………………. i

Certification …………………………………………………………………………………… ii

Dedication ……………………………………………………………………………………. . iii

Acknowledgment ………………………………………………………………………………. Iv

Abstract ………………………………………………………………………………………… v

Table of content ………………………………………………………………………………..  vi

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 Background of the study …………………………………………………………….  1- 2

1.2 Statement of the problem ……………………………………………………………  2-5

1.3 Research Question …………………………………………………………………..   5-5

1.4 Objectives of the study ……………………………………………………………..    5-5 

1.5 Hypothesis formulation ……………………………………………………………..   6-6

1.6 Significance of the study …………………………………………………………….  6-7

1.7 Scope of the study …………………………………………………………………… 7-7

1.8 Definition of key terms ……………………………………………………………… 7-8

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Conceptual Review …………………………………………………………………. 9-12

2.2 Characteristics of Entrepreneurship ………………………………………………….12-13 

2.3 Types of Entrepreneurship …………………………………………………………..13-13

2.3.1 Craftsman Entrepreneurs …………………………………………………………… 14-14

2.3.2     Opportunistic Entrepreneurs ………………………………………………………. 14-15

2.4 Contributions of Entrepreneurship Training towards Poverty Reduction in Nigeria .15-17

2.5 Other Contributions of Entrepreneurship towards Poverty Reduction in Nigeria  ...        17-17

2.5.1 Entrepreneurship Education ……………………………………………………       17-18

2.5.2 Alleviating Poverty through Women Entrepreneurship ………………………..       18-19

2.6 Hindrances of Entrepreneurship Training in achieving Poverty Reduction in Nigeria19-25

2.7 Theoretical Review …………………………………………………………………. 25-35

2.8 Empirical Review……………………………………………………………………35-37

2.9        Identification of Gap ……………………………………………………………37-38

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Research Design …………………………………………………………………39- 39           

3.2       Sources of data collection ……………  39-39

3.3 Population of the study ……………………………………………………………39-39

3.4 Sample Size and Sampling Technique …………………………………………….   39-40

3.5 Administer of Questionnaire ………………………………………………………   40-41

3.6 Method of Data Analysis …………………………………………………………41-41

3.7 Justification of the Method ………………………………………………………42-42

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA PRESENTATION ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

4.1 Data presentation ………………………………………………………..       43-43

4.2 Statement of Hypothesis ………………………………………………..         43-44

4.3       Test of Hypothesis ………………………………………………………       44-52

4.4 Discussion of Findings …………………………………………………..       52-52

CHAPTER FIVE

  SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1 Summary…………………………………………………………………     53-55

5.2 Conclusion ……………………………………………………………….. 55-57

5.3 Recommendation …………………………………………………………57-60

                Reference

                Appendix

                                                               CHAPTER ONE

                                                            INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 

One of the major challenges facing developing or underdeveloped countries of the world is poverty. It has been so endemic as a result of the high rate of unemployment that has become the major characteristic of the developing countries of the world. Although, the level and magnitude of poverty and unemployment has been observed to be different within and across nations, it still remains the major obstacle to the success of the struggle for the optimum utilization of human resources for both social and economic development of nations. With the position Nigeria occupy in Africa in terms of the share of population, one cannot but imagine the percentage of Nigerians that are affected by this debilitating monster called poverty and hence making the war against poverty one of the cardinal policy of government in Nigeria.    

Nigeria has one of the world’s highest economic growth rates, average 7.4% according to the Nigeria Economic Report released in July 2014 by the World Bank. Poverty may have been over estimated because of the country’s economy which is now been understood more and more. Poverty still remains significant at 33.1% in Africa’s biggest economy. The problem with poverty has proved intractable as very significant proportion of our population continues to live below the poverty line.   

         Poverty in any community is a serious setback to the economic, political, social and general development of the society. More so, in a society like ours characterized by low education, unskilled labour, and profligate lifestyle, non delivery of total quality policy package based on needs, policy leakages to non target population and traditional values and norms have all affected the performance of poverty alleviation initiatives, programmes and strategies. It is imperative at this point that we describe what poverty is. For the purpose of this research, the term poverty shall be defined from an empirical point of view. 

Weiser (2011), citing the World Banking (2011) defined poverty as pronounced deprivation in wellbeing and comprises many dimension.

The best way for government to achieve sustainable poverty reduction and to improve the economy in general, is to encourage a vibrant entrepreneurial society (Stephen Silvinski). This means;

⦁ The government needs to decrease business regulations and let free enterprises lead the way.

⦁ Accordingly, lifting licensing requirements that hurt poor entrepreneurs the most should be seen as an anti-poverty policy (Stephen Silvinski)

Entrepreneurship, its activities, if properly harnessed can positively engage school leavers, provide employment opportunity and thus reduce poverty. Entrepreneurship is very vital to a nation’s sustainable economic development as it helps to create wealth and reduce poverty to the barest minimal and if left unchecked could threaten the very foundation of our society, take away our freedom and bring down our nascent democracy.  It is against this background that this research topic ‘Entrepreneur as a tool for poverty reduction in Nigeria’ becomes desideratum.  

1.2 Statement of the Problem

One of the basic reasons for the existence of the National Directorate of Employment (NDE) and National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS) was to raise entrepreneurs from all ramifications.

 Over the years, it has faced numerous challenges that have slowed down its activities such as Inadequate training facilities, inadequate trainers, problem of well designed curriculum, lack of access to capital, government attitudes towards funding, problem of enabling operating environment. 

For example, it has been observed that adequate training facilities and equipments for acquiring business skills, capabilities and competencies which can effectively bring about entrepreneurial activities is lacking. The consequences of this problem have made the NDE & NEEDS unable to train who to be entrepreneurs. The resultant effect is that the senatorial district has not been able to live up to the expectation of promoting entrepreneurship in the country. In fact, this has affected the senatorial district in the sense that it has not been able to acquire modern skills through the acquisition of modern training facilities.     

There is also the problem of inadequate trainers. Availability of manpower is directly related to productivity. The personnel of senatorial district who are supposed to train people to become entrepreneurs are inadequate. The fact that the trainers are not qualified makes it difficult to be able to effectively impact knowledge and training on who will be an entrepreneur. The resultant effect of the inadequate and unskilled trainers of senatorial district is that it reduces the capacity of the senatorial district to properly train young entrepreneurs. 

The problem of a well designed curriculum is another challenge to entrepreneurial training in NDE & NEEDS. Every training or educational programme must have a well designed curriculum in order to be effective. Entrepreneurial training is confronted with the problem of lack of well designed curriculum due to lack of necessary information to be used in designing a suitable curriculum. The major requirement for effective entrepreneurial training in Nigeria includes reliable labour market information/business opportunities and career. The absence of these vital data means that entrepreneurial trainers have to plan their training programmes and curricular with sufficient information on business opportunities, labour market demand and career to be chosen. Hence, there is the problem of a well designed curriculum on which entrepreneurial education could be operated on.

Furthermore, Lack of access to capital is another big problem that the NDE & NEEDS and its recipients face in entrepreneurial training. Banks are reluctant to grant credit facilities to them without adequate collateral/securities. The lack of fund to start business places limitation on entrepreneurship development in senatorial district. This capital will aid senatorial district and its recipients to carry out entrepreneurial activities properly; the recipients will need capital to put into practice what they learnt and also reduce poverty drastically. The end result is that so far, senatorial district has only registered and trained people but no or little capital is given to them to put into practice what they learnt. The aim is defeated

In addition, Government attitude towards funding is also another problem confronting senatorial district in carrying out entrepreneurial activities in Nigeria. Government’s non-challant attitude towards the funding of entrepreneurial training is worrisome. Whenever fund is approved, it is not released on time, and when released at all, the corrupt officials will demand for “kickback” resulting to insufficient funds for the training. The resultant effect is that trainees will be at the receiving end because whatever resource released is meant for them but when this resource is diverted; there will not be adequate training. 

Lastly, there is the problem of conducive operating environment. If basic infrastructural facilities that aid training are still in poor state as they are, the trainers cannot do anything about entrepreneurial training. For example, power supply is epileptic and at times, power is completely out for days.  

This situation is really a big challenge to entrepreneurial training in senatorial district in Nigeria. The end result of this problem is that entrepreneurial activities will be slowed causing redundancy in the trainees.

1.3 Research Questions

Based on the above identified statement of research problems the following research questions were raised 

1. Why does the senatorial district still lack adequate training facilities and equipment despite several years of its existence?

2. What has made trainers unqualified and unskilled in performing their duties?

3. Why does access to capital pose big problems to entrepreneurship development?

4. How does government attitude towards funding entrepreneurship activities affect entrepreneurial development?

This research will deal with the aforementioned issues.

1.4    Objectives of the Study

The broad objective is to assess entrepreneurship as a tool for poverty reduction in Nigeria while the specific objectives are to:

1. Investigate the reasons behind lack of adequate training facilities and equipment.  

2. Determine level of qualified and skilled trainers in performing entrepreneurship activities.

3. Examine the problems of capital accessibility to entrepreneurship development.  

4. Assess government attitude towards funding entrepreneurship activities in Nigeria.

1.5 Research Hypothesis 

H01: There is no significant relationship between inadequate training facilities and equipment on entrepreneurship development.

H02: There is no significant relationship of qualified and skilled trainers on the performance of entrepreneurship activities.

H03:   There is no significant problem of accesing capital on entrepreneurship development.

H04: There is no significant effect in government attitudes towards funding entrepreneurship in Nigeria. 

1.6 Significance of the study

The research project would be important to the community in the local Government of the senatorial district, state and federal government. It will also help future entrepreneurs, beneficiaries and policy makers as a result of the analysis and discussion will give recommendation on how to enhance better improvements of the programmes. 

The research would also be relevant to scholars and student on entrepreneurship programme, most especially when crucial concept of entrepreneurship and poverty is seen from the political power and theoretical framework.

The study also intends to provide insights into changes in family lifestyles as a result of effectiveness of entrepreneurship on modern society. This knowledge would be of great value to these classes of people who will design programmes that will help people cope with problems.

1.7 Scope and Limitations to the Study

The study is carried out on National Directorate of Employment (NDE) and on National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS) in Kwara central. The Study will also look at the contribution of the NDE & NEEDS towards alleviating poverty and uplifting the standard of living of the beneficiaries through entrepreneurship. 

        Militating factors as time, insufficient fund, and coverage of large areas network were major problems encountered.

 Studying a large sample size of this nature can be stressful and so can result into a burnout situation. However, the research work was completed with the believe that the output would contribute immensely to human capital development.

.

ENTREPRENEURSHIP AS A TOOL FOR POVERTY REDUCTION IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF KWARA CENTRAL SENATORIAL DISTRICT)



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