THE ROLE OF MANAGEMENT IN INCREASING PRODUCTIVITY IN AN ORGANIZATION (A Case Study of Federal Medical Center Keffi)
1.0 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Any country that will be on her feet of survival must have a productive workforce. The workforce in manufacturing, industrial, energy, banking, educational, commercial and construction must be productive so as to see that such country survives the global trend of economical development. However, construction sector is a giant sector in any economy which should be given a proper attention in seeing that the workforce is highly productive.As the 20th century began, certain managers who wanted to improve the practice of management began to put their ideas in writing.The managers were particularly concerned with two issues; increasing the productivity of individuals performing work; and increasing the productivity of organizations within which work is performed.
Directing the attention of individual performing work and their strengths to determine how to manage work, an organization produces high level of output by a better use of resources. A body of management known as the classical approach addresses jobs and productivities which are critical issues for modern managers. The problem of low productivity has been a perennial one, which has to be solved once and for all.
Gibson (1999) notes that, to improve productivity, managers functions would have to be efficiently practiced. The management process will necessitate direct attention to productivity, planning and action. Planning, organizing and controlling will need to focus in the relationship of quantities of output and inputs. He further stated that productivity can be boosted through the new equipment and job design. People are also extremely important workers who should be given a befitting respect.
Abiola (2004) is of the opinion that productivity improvement is a central challenge or management in all types and sizes of organization. Productivity also involves the relationship between input and output goods and services. However, many construction industry outputs include all goods and services produced during a given time while inputs include all resources consumed to produce an output. Labour, capital, materials and energy are the inputs resources used or consumed. He further noted that improved utilization of manpower asset is the key to the significant short and long term productivity improvement. This productivity improvement is concerned with increasing output, reducing cost and the profitability of the company.
Productivity indicators and measures help in goal setting, identifying the best cost of action that will optimize resources utilization and cost effectiveness. An analysis of the past productivity trends and development can help in making decisions that will determine the future of the enterprise.
Planning is the most basic of the management functions because it involves the determination of organization mission, strategies and objectives. Productivity is a major objective for most organizations. It is logistical to suggest that this goal is part of the organization planning strategies. Organizations realize this everyday by making efforts to integrate productivity improvement into strategic planning.
Therefore, the purpose of this research work is to look at the role of management in improving productivity in Nigeria building construction project, also to examine those factors that affect the low level of productivity. To come up with solutions to those problems, and the tools to be used by the management for effective use of the resources put together to increase productivity.
1.1 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM
During recent decades it has been possible to identify several problems in construction industry project management, related to systematic failures in terms of fulfilling its schedule, cost and quality targets, which highlights a need for an evaluation of the factors that may cause these failures. Therefore, it is important to understand how project managers plan the projects so that the performance and the result can be improved. However it is important to understand if other areas beyond cost and time management that are mentioned on several studies as the most critical areas, receive the necessary attention from construction project managers. Despite the cost and time are the most sensitive areas/fields, there are several other factors that may lead to project failure and this research aims at understanding the reasons that may cause the deviation in terms of cost, time and quality.
1. What are the factors that affect the productivity of workers in building construction projects?
2. What are the roles of management towards increasing the productivity improvement in building construction projects?
3. What are the techniques used by the management in increasing productivity improvement in building construction projects?
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
This study aims at identifying the role of management in increasing productivity in an organization.
The following are the specific objectives formulated in order to archive the aim of the study:
1. To identify factors affecting productivity in an organization.
2. To identify the role of management in productivity improvement in an organization.
3. To determine the appropriate tools that must be employed by management in order to achieve high productivity in an organization.
1.4 JUSTIFICATION OF STUDY
The beneficiaries of the outcome of this project includes the clients, contractor and the consultant involved in the construction project. And the benefit of project management is to increase the contractors productivity in Nigeria, to increase and maintain a constant output by reducing the input resource.
Also, it will help the client in terms of quality of work, make the work economical and reduce time. It will help the contractor to save money and maximize profit and to reduce the consultants stress and also saves money for running the project.
Moreover, it will be of a useful materials for the upcoming student that want to embark on the relevant project topic.
1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Construction work encompasses building and engineering projects but due to limited time for completing the work and also high cost, this research work shall be limited to building work and excluding engineering project.
1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS
The key words or terminologies in this study shall be defined thus:
1.6.1 MANAGEMENT: The process o f dealing with or controlling people. It is the function that coordinates the effort of people to accomplish a common goal.
1.6.2 PRODUCTIVITY: It is an average measure of the efficiency of a person, machine, factory, system etc.
1.6.3 WORKFORCE: The total number of persons employed or employable in a particular firm or industry or the total number of workers in a specific undertaking.
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
The turn of the twentieth century catapulted the world into a global age of business, innovation, war, politics and technology. As the industrial age ended, companies began to grow naturally and expand globally into new market places. When new ventures arose, managers were tasked with dividing operational staff into two groups: one group to keep current operations running while utilizing another group of team members to act on strategies to grow the business, whether opening a new location, increasing market share, expanding naturally, creating a new product or acquiring a new line of business.
Consequently, the modern concept of project management was developed. Over the century, researchers, analyst and managers have examined the practice of project management. This analysis has generated several approaches to employing project management within an organization. But to understand the true advantage of project management, a thorough review of the literature surrounding the history, definitions, as well as methodologies used in modern project management is necessary. As a result of supporting project management, managers have the ability to make evidence based decisions about the benefits of a good project management methodology and select the project management methodology that best fit the goals and objectives they seek to achieve..