EFFECT OF AUTOMOBILE TECHNOLOGY ON ENTREPRENURSHIP FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN LAGOS STATE.

EFFECT OF AUTOMOBILE TECHNOLOGY ON ENTREPRENEURSHIP FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN LAGOS STATE.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

1.1      Background of the study

1.2        Statement of the problem

1.3   Purpose of the study

1.4  Significance of the Study

1.5  Research Questions

1.6  Significance of the study

1.7  Scope of the study

CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1       Introduction to Entrepreneurship

2.2       Entrepreneurship and economic Development 

2.3       Entrepreneurship Education and Sustainable Development in Nigeria

2.3.1    Strategies for Effective Entrepreneurship Education

2.3.2    Objectives of Entrepreneurship Education

2.4       Competence-based view of entrepreneurship

2.5       Developing entrepreneurial competencies as a student business

2.6       Entrepreneurship Education and Technological Patterns

2.7       Related Empirical Studies

2.8       Summary of review of related literature

CHAPTER THREE Research Methodology

3. 0      Introduction

3.1        Design of the study

3.2        Sample size

3.3        Population of the study

3.4        Instrument for data collection

3.5        Validation of instrument

3.6       Reliability of instrument

3.7       Method of data collection

3.8       Method of statistical analysis

  CHAPTER FOUR DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION

4.1       Research Question 1

4.2      Research Question 2

4.3       Research Question 3

4.4       Research Question 4

4.5       Preliminary Findings

4.6       Discussion      

CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY OF THE STUDY, CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATIONS AND SUGGESTION FOR FURTHER STUDY

5.1       Re-statement of the Problem.

5.2       Summary of Procedure Used

5.3        Principal Findings

5.4       Summary of the Study

5.5.1        Discussion Of Findings

5.6        Conclusion

5.7        Recommendations

CHAPTER ONE PROJECT TOPICS 

INTRODUCTION

1.1        Background of the study

Over the years there have been many definitions of  entrepreneurship and they have all been acceptable definitions but i define it as the capacity and willingness to develop, organize and manage a business venture along with any of its risks in order to make a profit. The most obvious example of entrepreneurship is the starting of new businesses.

In economics, entrepreneurship combined with land, labor, natural resources and capital can produce profit. Entrepreneurial spirit is characterized by innovation and risk-taking, and is an essential  part of a nation's ability to succeed in an ever changing and increasingly competitive global marketplace.

One can simply say that entrepreneurship as the pursuit of a self-owned business or company. Entrepreneurs are people who are willing to take risks to make a profit, whether by inventing a new product or opening their own company, it is also the behavior of starting business or taking on financial risk with the hope of making a profit. Entrepreneurship is almost a way of life. If you have it in you, then it permeates everything that you do.

Entrepreneurship is the act of starting a company, arranging business deals and taking risks in order to make a profit through the skills acquired (Omolayo 2006). Entrepreneurship education can also be described as the term given to who has innovative ideas and also posses the ability to transforms it to profitable activities. Entrepreneurship in other words is the process of bringing together creative, innovative ideas and coupling these with management and organizational skills in order to combine people, money and resources to meet an identified need and create wealth. In the same vein, Nwangwu (2007) opined that entrepreneurship is a process of bringing together the factors of production, which include land, labour and capital so as to provide a product or service for public consumption. However, the operational definition of entrepreneurship is the willingness and ability of a person or persons to acquire educational skills to explore and exploit investment opportunities, establish and manage a successful business enterprise.

Entrepreneur can be defined as an innovating individual who has developed an ongoing business activity where none existed before. Meredith (1983) defined an entrepreneur as a person or persons who possesses the ability to recognize and evaluate business opportunities, assemble the necessary resources to take advantage of them and take appropriate action to ensure success. Entrepreneurs are people who constantly discover new markets and try to figure out how to supply those markets efficiently and make a profit.

An Entrepreneur is a person that searches for change, responds to change, and exploits change by converting change into business opportunity.

Political instability and inconsistencies in the social-economic policies of successive government led to the emergence of high level unemployment in Nigeria. In the mid 80s, the Nigeria economic collapsed while youth and graduate unemployment hit the roof. There was large-scale layoff of workers and early retirements as a result of structural adjustment policies and bad economic trends in the country. In the face of this situation entrepreneurship, which would have salvaged the situation, was not encouraged. It has been observed that tertiary education has not been properly included with philosophy of self-reliance such as creating a new cultural and productive environment, that will promote pride in self-discipline, encouraging people to take part actively and freely in discussions and decisions affecting their general welfare, promoting new sets of attitudes and culture for the attainment of future challenges.

According to Nwangwu (2007), the failure of tertiary education to inculcate the above philosophy in students has led to wastages in terms of both human and natural resources. This is because the youth and graduate from tertiary institutions are not equipped with the skills with which to exploit the natural resources that abound in Nigeria. All these factors have rendered the pursuit of self-reliance among our graduates difficult to retain. Whether technology alone will be sufficient to achieve an entrepreneurship sustainable future is unclear. This will depend on public and private support for entrepreneurship beneficial technologies and the extent to which further growth in world population and economic output will compromise per capita emissions reductions and a more efficient use of natural resources.

Sustainable development is a pattern of economic growth in which resource use aims to meet human needs while preserving the environment so that these needs can be met not only in the present, but also for generations to come (Paul, 2005). Sustainable development ties together concern for the carrying capacity of natural systems with the social challenges faced by humanity. Sustainable development requires balancing environmental, societal and economic considerations in the pursuit of development and an improved quality of life. Sustainability includes intergenerational equity, gender equity, just and peaceful societies, social tolerance, environmental preservation and restoration, poverty alleviation and natural resource conservation (Paul, 2005). The major essential tool for achieving sustainable development includes the following:

Improve the quality of basic education; Reorient existing education programmed to address sustainable development; Develop public awareness and understanding; and Provide training for all sectors of private and civil society.

Education for Sustainable Development is the focus or projection of education that seeks to equip people towards creating a sustainable future. Stakeholders such as government, businesses, educational institutions, media, and organizations play important roles in achieving sustainable development. Each of these sectors has a different vision of sustainable development. Some are interested in environmental preservation and protection; some have economic development interests while other may be more interested in social development. According to UNESCO (2003) the way each nation, cultural group and individual views sustainable development will depend on its own values.

In many European nations, Universities and technical colleges trained students of science, economics and business management in skills that helps to build more sustainable societies. Programs such as Peace Education, Human Right Education, Environmental Education and Youth Entrepreneur schemes are carried out in many schools (UNESCO, (2003). Hence, such initiatives help students and teachers to gain an understanding of the inter-linkages needed for sustainable development (Paul, 2005). The emphasis has been on education that will provide life and occupational skills that will enhance the potentials of individual, reinforcing self-sufficiency and improving quality of life.

Entrepreneurial competency is defined as the capability of entrepreneurs to face effectively a critical situation by making sense of environmental constraints and by activating relational and internal specific resources’ (Iandoli, (2007). Entrepreneurial competencies are defined as individual’s traits, such as specific knowledge, motives, features, self images, social roles and abilities which result in venture’s success. Some entrepreneurial competencies can be learned through formal education, other competencies are tacit and depend on individual’s characteristics and are built during the person’s life, experience, and career (Brownell, (2006).

Entrepreneurial competencies associated with the firm’s performance and competitiveness business growth and success (Mitchelmore and Rowley, (2010). Acquiring entrepreneurial competencies is of key importance for entrepreneurs willing to achievement oriented entrepreneurs. Issues relating to the competencies development process relating to entrepreneurs have generally been neglected. Competencies play an important role in successful entrepreneurship. Surprisingly, the research on the entrepreneurial competencies is rather limited (Mitchelmore and Rowley, (2010).

This study examines the effect of automobile technology students’ competency on entrepreneurship for sustainable development in Lagos State. Also, change in basic technologies of production, transport and consumption rather than modifications of existing products and processes or the adoption of end-of-pipe technologies are also considered.

However, such changes alone will be largely insufficient for achieving the ultimate goal of sustainable development. To achieve that, more fundamental changes in technology are needed.

1.2              Statement of the problem

There are basically two ways a graduate can end up , either into the soft skill level which is gaining employment in a corporate world(white-collar job) or entrepreneurial skills(business owner) to start one’s own business. In Nigeria’s economic environment which has unemployment as one of its major problems, it is of benefit that when a student acquires proper knowledge in entrepreneurship skills such student would be able to discover what they can lay their hands on if corporate employment does not come. The importance of entrepreneurship to any economy is like that of entrepreneurship in any community. Entrepreneurial activity and the resultant financial gain are always of benefit to a country. If a student has entrepreneurship skills then they will recognize a genuine opportunity when you come across one and that makes unemployment reduction possible.

The present education system encourages cramming and memory and not on creativity and practical application of knowledge and this is unhealthy and unstable for a virile technological advancement and   entrepreneurship development .Also fear of failure by the people to take risk on entrepreneurial activities, while an unstable and conducive political environment drives away people that are planning to embark on entrepreneurial activities hence it does not make knowledge delivery on entrepreneurial skills available to students.

In addition, government programs are not designed to promote technological and entrepreneurship sustainability in Nigeria, the level of infrastructural development provided by the government is still very low and this has been affecting to a very high extent the level of productivity and entrepreneurial activities in the country.Judging by the figures that are coming out of the Education Ministry in Nigeria, In the last few years, at least 60% of graduates are not able to get employment immediately. Because of that, they go into one entrepreneurial venture or another, but unfortunately they have not been adequately prepared to face the challenges of venturing.

Introduction of entrepreneurship skills in our curriculum and making it compulsory in education system in order to prepare students for proper skills needed in venturing into any business they can after graduating as this will help reduce unemployment. However, the education institution need to encourage entrepreneurship skills right from the curriculum itself and government should also take initiative in encouraging the students by providing conducive climate for the same.

Teachers and faculties should motivate students in being interested in this aspect of the curriculum and it should be emphasized as a very important knowledge that may be useful after completion of studies.

More so, Entrepreneurial development through education will advance the economy of the nation hence much credence should be given to it and ingrained with focus on profitable personal development. Infrastructure provision and non-profitable organization invitation into sponsoring various entrepreneurial programs and funding in institutions is a very important aspect in the growth and development of entrepreneurship development and employment level of a nation.

1.3              Purpose of the study

The purpose of the study will be to:

Examine automobile technology student competency on entrepreneurship. Find out the effect of entrepreneurship on sustainable development in Lagos state. Explores some of the policy issues in achieving a shift towards a more sustainable development in Lagos State.

1.4              Significance of the Study

The result of this studies will be useful to the youth both graduates and undergraduates. This is because it will help them to be aware, prepare and improve on personal development of their entrepreneurial skills hence gives chance to those who are not lucky or do not become gainfully employed in the so called ‘White-Collar’ jobs to start their own business with the little possible finance they lay their hands on.

Secondly, The result of the study will be useful to the government as it will lay emphasis on the various ways in which entrepreneurship skill development in students can reduce unemployment and also point out the various ways this can be done and policies that will be put in place to make sure that entrepreneurial activities can be directed toward productive ends conducive to economic progress.

Thirdly, the society is a large faction to gain from this study by making known the importance of delivering the knowledge of entrepreneurship skills can go a long way to meet local needs from hairdresser, financial consultant, emergency plumber and other local but important business owners. This study also talks about the fear people have in risk of starting a business and how that can be overcome and how the society is a large factor in the fear that is created in the mind of someone that wants to start a business.

1.5              Research Questions

This study will provide answers to the following questions:

What are the automobile technology student competencies on entrepreneurship? What are the policy issues in achieving a shift towards a more sustainable development in Lagos State? What are the effects of entrepreneurship on sustainable development in Lagos state? To what extent is automobile technology affect students competency on entrepreneurship development?

1.5       Research Hypotheses

1.         There is no significant difference between students in rural and urban area and competency in entrepreneurship

2.         There is no significant difference between the mean scores of students’ social economic status on entrepreneurship development

3.         There is no significant relationship between automobile technology and students’ competency on entrepreneurship development

1.6              Significance of the study

The finding of the study will equip our general knowledge on the nature of automobile technology and student’s competency on entrepreneurship with emphasis on sustainable development on Lagos State.

This research work is significant because it will assist lecturers, educationists, parents and students to realize that entrepreneurship development is key to sustainable development.

 Curious readers who are in need of general information on entrepreneurships   will profit from reading of the project since it will enhance their knowledge on how sustainable development can be attained.

1.7              Scope of the study

The study will be mainly on the effects of automobile technology students’ competency on entrepreneurship for sustainable development in Lagos state. The study will be limited to secondary schools in Mainland  Local Government Area of Lagos State.

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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper


    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

    Click here to complete this article - How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

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