Sorghum beer is an indigenous African alcoholic beverage that has been long traditionally brewed in the Savannah region of Nigeria; over the years there has been a problem with the Keep ability of these beers. Contemporally, a conceptual approach of hopping these beers with an indigenous hop extracts; Utazi (Gongronema latifolium) has relatively improved its chemical properties compared to the Unhopped beer. This has been proven from the following; appreciable decrease in its ethanol content, total acidity, volatile acidity, Aspergillus prevalence from the fourth day of its bench storage relative to the Unhopped beer which manifested in the second day. This clearly shows that the hopped sorghum beer with Utazi has a decreased rate of deterioration compared to the conventional Unhopped counterpart. 


Title page = = =   i

Certification page = = = ii

Dedication = = = iii

Acknowledgement = = = iv

List of figures = = = v

List of tables = = = vi

Table of contents = = = vii-xi

Abstract = = = xii


1.0 Introduction = = = 1-2

1.2 Aims and objectives = = 2


2.0 Literature review = = 3

2.1 Historical overview = = 3-4

2.2 Brewing of Beer = = 5

2.2.1 Contemporal Western Brewing Process = 5-7

2.2.2 Indigenous African brewing process = = 7-8

2.3 Raw materials for brewing = = 8-9

2.3.1 Starch Source = = 9-10

2.3.2 Water = = 10

2.3.3  Hops = = 11 Hop substitutes = = 12 Utazi (Gongronema latifolium). = = 12-13 Chemical properties of ‘Utazi’ = = 13-14

2.3.4 Brewer’s yeast = = 13-15

2.3.5 Baker’s yeast = = 15

2.4 Biochemistry and microbiology of

Brewing and malting= = = 16

2.4.1 Malting and kilning = = 16

2.4.2 Miling and mashing = = 16

2.4.3 Chemistry of mashing = = 17

2.4.4    Souring = = 17

2.4.5 Boiling = = 17-18

2.4.6 Straining = = 18

2.4.7 Alcoholic fermentation = = 18-19

2.4.8 Aging , Filtering and Package = = 19

2.4.9 Spoilage = = 20

2.4.91 Beer spoilage organisms = = 20-22

2.5 Chemistry of fermentation process = = 22-25

2.5.1 Alcoholic fermentation process = = 26-27

2.6 Types of beers = = 27

2.6. 1 European types = = 27-28

2.6.2 Indigenous African beers = = 28 Classification of fermented AfricanBeers = 29 Pito = = 30 Merissa = = 30-31 Bouza = = 31-32

2.7 Local production of Burukutu = = 33-34

2.7.1 Nature of its malting process = = 34

2.8 Some indigenous African non alcoholicbeverages = 35

2.8.1 Ogi = = = 36

2.8.2 Banku = = = 36

2.9 Cereals = = = 37

2.9.1 Millet = = = 38 Scientific classification = = = 38-39 Current uses of millet = = = 39-40 Other uses of millet = = = 40-41

2.9.2 Sorghum = = = 41-42 Scientific classification = = = 42 Uses of sorghum = = = 43-44


3.0 Materials and method = = = 45

3.1 Materials = = = 45

3.1.1 Chemicals and reagents = = = 45

3.1.2 Glasswares and equipments = = 45-47

3.2 Preparation of samples===47

3.2.1 Methods = = = 47

3.2.2 Ingredients = = = 47

3.2.3 Methods of preparation = = 47-48

3.2.4 Activation of yeast = = 48

3.2.5 Preparation of Utazi leaf extracts = = 48

3.2.6 Preparation of reagents = = 49 phenolphthalein = = 49 0.1m NaoH = = 49

3.3 Method of Chemical Analysis = = 49

3.3.1 Total Acidity = = 49

3.3.2 Fixed Acidity = = 50

3.3.3 Volatile Acidity = = 50

3.3.4 pH Determination = = 50

3.3.5 Specific Gravity = = 51

3.3.6 Total dissolved Solids (TDS) = = 51

3.3.7 Total suspended Solids (TSS) = = 51-52

3.3.8 Ethanol Contents = = 52

3.3.9 Microbial Count = = 52-53 Procedures for the preparation theof media = 53 Procedures for culturing plates = = 54 Procedures for the identification of Organisms = 54


4.0 Results = = 55

4.1 Parameters generated from Hopped and

Unhopped sorghum Beers with (G. latifolium) = = 58

4.2   Specific gravity of bench stored Sorghum Beer

Hopped with Utazi (G. latifolim) and withoutHops=56

4.3    Total Acidity of bench stored Sorghum Beer

Hopped with Utazi (G. latifolium) and withoutHops = 57

4.4   Ethanol content of bench stored Sorghum Beer

Hopped with Utazi (G. latifolium) and withoutHops = 58

4.5   Microbial count of bench stored Sorghum

Beer with Hops Utazi (G. latifolium) = 59

4.6 Microbial count of bench stored Sorghum

Beer without Hops Utazi (G. latifolium) = 59


5.0 Discussion and conclusion. = = 60

5.1 Discussion of Results = = 60-65

5.2 Conclusion = = 65-66

5.3 Recommendations = = 66

References = = 67-69

Appendix = = 70-72



Beer is an alcoholic beverage made from cereal grains, usually barley, but also corn, sorghum, millet, rice, wheat, and oats. Beer is made using a process called fermentation, in which microscopic fungi called yeast consume sugars in the grain, converting them to alcohol and carbon dioxide gas (Michael,et al, 2004). Over 70 styles of beer are available today. Each style derives its unique characteristics from its ingredients and subtle differences in its brewing process (Gunsch, 2010). Throughout history, wherever cereal grains were grown, humans made a beerlike beverage from them: they used wheat in Mesopotamia, Barley in Egypt, Millet and Sorghum in other parts of Africa, rice in Asia, and corn in the Americas. Today, beer making is a major industry worldwide (Dornbush, et al, 2006).

Our indigenous African Beers are sourced fermented drinks made with Sorghum, Maize or Millet. ‘Pito’ is a dark brown traditional alcoholic beverage of Binis in the western part of Nigeria prepared from malted grains (Maize, Sorghum or both) with a pleasant sour taste (Ekundayo, et al,1969). ‘Burukutu’ another indigenous alcoholic drink made from sorghum,Savannah region of Nigeria  (Uveve,  et al, 200)The production process of both drinks involvesfermentation at its initial production stage and comes out as an alcoholic drink. Other locally made deetrinks include; ‘KunuZaki’, ‘Bouza,’ ‘Merissa’, ‘Komoni’ and Bogule.  The shelf life of these drinks isaffected by their method of preparation, storage methods and the presence of a hop extracts in them (Morcos, et al, 1973).

Some of our locally sourced tropical hop extracts include Bitter leaf extracts (Vernon iaamygdalina ), Utazi leaf extracts (Gongronemalatifolium) both leaves have been found to contain an Anti-bactericidal agent which is capable of extending the useful life of these indigenous beers (Uveve, et al, 2002). Freezing and cooling are another different ways of preservation using low temperature. Freezing involves the changing of liquid to solid which can occur between the 0.5Image to 3Image temperature ranges. Chilling which is a level of freezing involves making something cool especially using a refrigerator. Such things could be referred to as ‘refrigerated’. Chilling can occur between 0Image to 5Image. These conditions help to preserve the quality by prolonging the life our indigenous drinks.  (Dog fish Head Craft Brewery, 2010).


(i) To determine the shelf life of a locally brewed Sorghum Beer.

(ii) To check the effect of ‘Utazi’ leaf extract on the shelf life of the locally         brewed Sorghum Beer.



RESEARCHWAP.COM is an online repository for free project topics and research materials, articles and custom writing of research works. We’re an online resource centre that provides a vast database for students to access numerous research project topics and materials. guides and assist Postgraduate, Undergraduate and Final Year Students with well researched and quality project topics, topic ideas, research guides and project materials. We’re reliable and trustworthy, and we really understand what is called “time factor”, that is why we’ve simplified the process so that students can get their research projects ready on time. Our platform provides more educational services, such as hiring a writer, research analysis, and software for computer science research and we also seriously adhere to a timely delivery.


Please feel free to carefully review some written and captured responses from our satisfied clients.

  • "Exceptionally outstanding. Highly recommend for all who wish to have effective and excellent project defence. Easily Accessable, Affordable, Effective and effective."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I saw this website on facebook page and I did not even bother since I was in a hurry to complete my project. But I am totally amazed that when I visited the website and saw the topic I was looking for and I decided to give a try and now I have received it within an hour after ordering the material. Am grateful guys!"

    Hilary Yusuf, United States International University Africa, Nairobi, Kenya.
  • " is a website I recommend to all student and researchers within and outside the country. The web owners are doing great job and I appreciate them for that. Once again, thank you very much "" and God bless you and your business! ."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I love what you guys are doing, your material guided me well through my research. Thank you for helping me achieve academic success."

    Sampson, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • " is God-sent! I got good grades in my seminar and project with the help of your service, thank you soooooo much."

    Cynthia, Akwa Ibom State University .
  • "Great User Experience, Nice flows and Superb functionalities.The app is indeed a great tech innovation for greasing the wheels of final year, research and other pedagogical related project works. A trial would definitely convince you."

    Lamilare Valentine, Kwame Nkrumah University, Kumasi, Ghana.
  • "Sorry, it was in my spam folder all along, I should have looked it up properly first. Please keep up the good work, your team is quite commited. Am grateful...I will certainly refer my friends too."

    Elizabeth, Obafemi Awolowo University
  • "Am happy the defense went well, thanks to your articles. I may not be able to express how grateful I am for all your assistance, but on my honour, I owe you guys a good number of referrals. Thank you once again."

    Ali Olanrewaju, Lagos State University.
  • "My Dear Researchwap, initially I never believed one can actually do honest business transactions with Nigerians online until i stumbled into your website. You have broken a new legacy of record as far as am concerned. Keep up the good work!"

    Willie Ekereobong, University of Port Harcourt.
  • "WOW, SO IT'S TRUE??!! I can't believe I got this quality work for just 3k...I thought it was scam ooo. I wouldn't mind if it goes for over 5k, its worth it. Thank you!"

    Theressa, Igbinedion University.
  • "I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...."

    Joseph, Abia state Polytechnic.
  • "My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"

    Christiana, Landmark University .
  • "I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!."

    Musa, Federal University of Technology Minna
  • "I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!."

    Ali Obafemi, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Niger State.
  • To contribute to our success story, send us a feedback or please kindly call 2348037664978.
    Then your comment and contact will be published here also with your consent.

    Thank you for choosing