This study was aimed at investigating the microbial load and the quality of indoor air Faith Mediplex Centre, Benin City, to ascertain their contribution to infection rate in the hospital. Air samples were assessed for three (3) months (June-August, 2015) using the settled plate methods. The study sites were divided into five (5) units; male medical ward, female medical ward, treatment room, operating theatre and outside the hospital gate. The result obtained reveal the isolation of six (6) bacterial isolates and four (4) fungal isolates which include Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus spp., Serrantia mercescen, Klebsiella spp., and Micrococcus spp. for the bacterial isolates, while the four (4) fungal isolates include Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus  flavus, Penicillium spp.and Candida albicans. The highest bacterial load and fungal load of 95.5cfu/min and 43.5cfu/min respectively were recorded outside the hospital gate, and the lowest bacterial and fungal load of 45cfu/min and 26.5cfu/mins respectively were recorded in the male medical ward for both bacterial and fungal. The most frequently occurring bacterial and fungal isolates wereStaphylococcus aureus and Aspergillus nigerrespestively, occurring at 100%. All units that were included in the study were contaminated with bacteria and fungi. The bacteria and fungi concentrations of air obtained in this study might be potential risk factors for spread of nosocomial infection in the Hospital hence a high level of hygiene must be practiced by both patients and health care providers.


Cover page - - - - - - - - - i

Title page - - - - - - - - - ii

Certification - - - - - - - - - iii

Approval - - - - - - - - - iv


Acknowledgement - - - - - - - - vi

Table of contents--------vii

List of Tables - - - - - - - - - xi

List of Figures - - - - - - - - - xii

Abstract - - - - - - - - - xiii


1.0  Introduction - - - - - - - - 1

1.1  AimsandObjectives - - - - - - - - 3


2.0 Literature Review - - - - - - - - 4

2.1 Microbes in Indoor Environmemt - - - - - - 4

2.2 Bio-Aerosols - - - - - - - - 5

2.2.1 Factors Infleuncing Bio-Aerosols - - - - - 7

2.2.2 Sources of Bio-Aerosols in Indoor - - - - - 7 Health Care Facilities - - - - - - - 7

2.2.3 Role of Bio-Aerosols in Healthcare Settings----8

2.2.4 Health Effect of Bio-Aerosols------8 Infectioue Diseases-------9 Respiration Diseases-------10 Cancer - - - - - - - - - 11

2.2.5 Modes of Transmission - - - - - - - 12

2.2.6 Control Measures for Reducing Bio-Aerosols - - - - 12

2.3 Hospital Environment - - - - - - - 13

2.3.1 Hospital Microbial Load - - - - - - 14

2.3.2 Level of Airborne Microoganisms in Hospitals----15

2.3.3 Sources and Factors Infleuncing Bio-Aerosols in Hospitals- - - 17

2.3.4 Health Risks- - - - - - - - - 18

2.3.5 Control Measures - - - - - - - 20

2.4 Hospital Acquired Infectiins (HAIs)/Nosocomial Infections--21

2.4.1 Role of Airborne Infectious Agent in Nosocomial Infections--23


3.0 Materials and Methods - - - - - - 25

3.1 Study Area- - - - - - - - - 25

3.2 Sterilization of Materials-------25

3.2.1 Autoclaving--------25

3.2.2 Dry heat---------25

3.3 Media Used and Their Preparation-----26

3.3.1 Nutrient Agar (NA) - - - - - - - 26

3.3.2 Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) - - - - - - 26

3.4 Sample Collection--------26

3.5 Bacteria Identification - - - - - - - 27

3.5.1 Gram Staining--------27

3.6 Biochemical Tests--------28

3.6.1 Catalase Test - - - - - - - - 28

3.6.2 Coagulase Test--------28

3.6.3 Citrate Test--------29

3.6.4 Glucose Test--------29

3.6.5 Oxidase Test--------29

3.6.7 Indole Test--------30

3.6.7 Motility Test--------30

3.7 Fungi Identification - - - - - - - 30


4.0 Results - - - - - - - - - 31


5.0 Discussion - - - - - - - - - 39

5.1 Conclusion - - - - - - - - 41

References - - - - - - - - - 42

Appendix A - - - - - - - - - 59

Appendix B - - - - - - - - - 61

Appendix C - - - - - - - - - 63



        Air supplies us with oxygen which is essential for our bodies to live. Pure air is a mixture of gases that are invisible, colorless and odorless consisting of 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen and other gases as well as varying amounts of water vapor (Murray et al., 1995). This pure air can become contaminated in various ways affecting humans, plants and animals. Air pollution is the introduction into the atmosphere of chemicals, particulate matter or biological materials that causes discomfort, disease or death to humans, damage to other living organisms including food crops. Both indoor air and outdoor air can become polluted by pesticides. These pesticides contain active and inert substances such as cyclodiene which is associated with symptoms such as dizziness, headaches, weakness, muscle twitching and nausea (Hays et al., 1995).

        Good indoor air quality (IAQ) is important for all of us; most people spend 90 % or more of their time indoors. Most of this time consists of the hours spent at home or at work, while school age children spend 20 % of their time in schools (Clench-Aas et al., 1999). Good IAQ consists of many aspects; it is an interaction of a functioning and efficient ventilation and the lowest achievable amount of chemical, inorganic or organic and microbial compounds which should not evoke symptoms in the occupants (Spengler et al., 2001).

       Microorganisms such as bacterial and fungal spores are almost always present in the air. The quality of indoor environment, however, is not easily defined or readily controlled, and can potentially place human occupants at risk (Jaffal, et al., 1997a). Airborne transmission is one of the routes of spreading disease that is responsible for several nosocomial infections (Claudete et al., 2006).

        Exposure to bio-aerosols, containing airborne microorganisms and their by-products, can result in respiratory disorders and other adverse health effects such as infections, hypersensitivity pneumonitis and toxic reactions (Gorny et al., 2002; Fracchia et al., 2006). 

        Indoor air quality is a term which refers to the air quality within and around buildings and structures especially as it relates to the health and comfort of its occupants. Indoor air can be polluted by various compounds such as carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), particulate matter and microbial contaminants (moulds, bacteria, viruses) and any action that introduces harmful contaminants into the air within the building. The concern for quality indoor air is necessary especially in institutionalized settings that accommodate a large number of people such as hospitals, nursing homes, prisons, schools, family because contaminated air can cause both mild and severely irritating health conditions (Tambeker et al., 2007). The quality of air in hospitals in relation to microbial contamination at a given time period is determined by the quality of air entering into the building, the number of occupants in the building, their physical activities and resultant aerosol generation, human traffic and the efficiency of ventilation (Adebolu and Vhirterhre, 2002).                      

        Indoor air quality in hospitals is a concern due to presence of airborne microorganisms that may cause nosocomial infections (Beggs CB, 2003). Few published reports have studied the seasonal fluctuations in microbial loads over time in hospital environment (Augustowska and Dutkiewicz, 2006). While studies in developing countries have documented presence of nosocomially significant bacteria and fungi in indoor air of healthcare facilities (Sudharsanam et al., 2008; Ekhaise et al., 2008), these studies were not performed over extended time periods to ascertain the influence of seasonal changes on airborne microbial loads.

        Nosocomial infection also known as hospital acquired infection is an infection acquired in a hospital environment, which was not present in the patient at the time of admission (Beggs, 2003). Hospitals are potentially conducive for antimicrobial resistant and virulent pathogens to proliferate. Large numbers of microorganisms are found in indoor air and it is of great importance to carry out regular survey as a yardstick of determining standard of cleanliness in hospitals (Williams et al., 1956). The sources of hospital airborne infection or contamination could be traced to a variety of factors. These include the patient’s own normal flora, linens, bed sheets, staff clothes, visitors and the materials such as flowers. Activity of patients (sneezing, coughing, talking, yawning) and the number of patients per room may likewise be sources of hospital infection (Jaffal et al., 1997a; Ekhaise et al., 2008; 2010). It has also been reported that microbiological pollutants such as animal droplets, plants, building materials and air conditioning system have played significant role in the spread of airborne microflora. Materials such as files kept close to bedside in surgical wards have been implicated as a viable source (Burge et al., 2000).


        This study was aimed at investigating the microbial load and the quality of indoor air of four difference wards/units and outside the hospital gate of Faith Mediplex Centre, Benin City.

I. To isolate and characterize the airborne micro-flora from hospital environment and to ascertain their contribution to infection rate in the hospital.




Researchwap.com is an online repository for free project topics and research materials, articles and custom writing of research works. We’re an online resource centre that provides a vast database for students to access numerous research project topics and materials. Researchwap.com guides and assist Postgraduate, Undergraduate and Final Year Students with well researched and quality project topics, topic ideas, research guides and project materials. We’re reliable and trustworthy, and we really understand what is called “time factor”, that is why we’ve simplified the process so that students can get their research projects ready on time. Our platform provides more educational services, such as hiring a writer, research analysis, and software for computer science research and we also seriously adhere to a timely delivery.


Please feel free to carefully review some written and captured responses from our satisfied clients.

  • "Exceptionally outstanding. Highly recommend for all who wish to have effective and excellent project defence. Easily Accessable, Affordable, Effective and effective."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I saw this website on facebook page and I did not even bother since I was in a hurry to complete my project. But I am totally amazed that when I visited the website and saw the topic I was looking for and I decided to give a try and now I have received it within an hour after ordering the material. Am grateful guys!"

    Hilary Yusuf, United States International University Africa, Nairobi, Kenya.
  • "Researchwap.com is a website I recommend to all student and researchers within and outside the country. The web owners are doing great job and I appreciate them for that. Once again, thank you very much "researchwap.com" and God bless you and your business! ."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I love what you guys are doing, your material guided me well through my research. Thank you for helping me achieve academic success."

    Sampson, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • "researchwap.com is God-sent! I got good grades in my seminar and project with the help of your service, thank you soooooo much."

    Cynthia, Akwa Ibom State University .
  • "Great User Experience, Nice flows and Superb functionalities.The app is indeed a great tech innovation for greasing the wheels of final year, research and other pedagogical related project works. A trial would definitely convince you."

    Lamilare Valentine, Kwame Nkrumah University, Kumasi, Ghana.
  • "Sorry, it was in my spam folder all along, I should have looked it up properly first. Please keep up the good work, your team is quite commited. Am grateful...I will certainly refer my friends too."

    Elizabeth, Obafemi Awolowo University
  • "Am happy the defense went well, thanks to your articles. I may not be able to express how grateful I am for all your assistance, but on my honour, I owe you guys a good number of referrals. Thank you once again."

    Ali Olanrewaju, Lagos State University.
  • "My Dear Researchwap, initially I never believed one can actually do honest business transactions with Nigerians online until i stumbled into your website. You have broken a new legacy of record as far as am concerned. Keep up the good work!"

    Willie Ekereobong, University of Port Harcourt.
  • "WOW, SO IT'S TRUE??!! I can't believe I got this quality work for just 3k...I thought it was scam ooo. I wouldn't mind if it goes for over 5k, its worth it. Thank you!"

    Theressa, Igbinedion University.
  • "I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much researchwap.com, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...."

    Joseph, Abia state Polytechnic.
  • "My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about researchwap.com, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"

    Christiana, Landmark University .
  • "I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!."

    Musa, Federal University of Technology Minna
  • "I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!."

    Ali Obafemi, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Niger State.
  • To contribute to our success story, send us a feedback or please kindly call 2348037664978.
    Then your comment and contact will be published here also with your consent.

    Thank you for choosing researchwap.com.