DETERMINATION OF DEGRADINGABILITY OF FUNGI ISOLATED FROM HYDROCARBON POLLUTED SOIL ON CRUDE OIL USING GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY

DETERMINATION OF DEGRADINGABILITY OF FUNGI ISOLATED FROM HYDROCARBON POLLUTED SOIL ON CRUDE OIL USING GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY

CHAPTER ONE

1.0              INTRODUCTION  

Crude oils are composed of mixtures of paraffin, alicyclic and aromatic hydrocarbons. Microbial communities exposed to hydrocarbons become adapted, exhibiting selective enrichment and genetic changes resulting in increased proportions of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and bacterial plasmids encoding hydrocarbon catabolic genes (Leahy and Colwell, 2004). Adapted microbial communities have higher proportions of hydrocarbon degraders that can respond to the presence of hydrocarbon pollutants. The measurement of biodegradation rates under favorable laboratory conditions using 14C-labelled hexadecane has led to the estimation that as much as 0.5 – 60 g oil/m3 seawater convert to carbon dioxide, depending on temperature and mineral nutrient conditions. The principal forces limiting the biodegradation of polluting petroleum in the sea are the resistant and toxic components of oil itself, low water temperatures, scarcity of mineral nutrients (especially nitrogen and phosphorous), the exhaustion of dissolved oxygen and in previously unpolluted areas, the scarcity of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms (Atlas, 2002). Low winter temperature can limit rates of hydrocarbon biodegradation increasing the resident time of oil pollutants (Bodennec et al., 2007). Biodegradation is nature's way of recycling wastes or breaking down organic matter into nutrients that can be used and reused by other organisms.

In the microbiological sense, "bio-degradation" means that the decaying of all organic materials is carried out by a huge assortment of life forms comprising mainly bacteria and fungi, and other organisms. This pivotal, natural, biologically mediated process is the one that transforms hazardous toxic chemicals into non-toxic or less toxic substances. In a very broad sense, in nature, there is no waste because almost everything gets recycled. In addition, the secondary metabolites, intermediary molecules or any ‘waste products’ from one organism become the food/nutrient source(s) for others, providing nourishment and energy while they are further working-on/breaking down the so-called waste organic matter. Some organic materials will break down much faster than others, but all will eventually decay. By harnessing microbial communities, the natural “forces” of biodegradation, reduction of wastes and clean up of some types of environmental contaminants can be achieved. There are several reasons for which this process is better than chemical or physical processes. For example, this process directly degrades contaminants rather than merely transforming them from one form to the other, employ metabolic degradation pathways that can terminate with benign terminal products like CO2 and water, derive energy directly from the contaminants themselves, and can be used in situ to minimize the disturbances usually associated with chemical treatment at the clean-up sites. Biological degradation of organic compounds may be considered an economical tool for remediating hazardous waste-contaminated environments. While some environments may be too severely contaminated for initial in situ treatment to be effective, most contaminated media will use some form of biological degradation in the final treatment phase. 

Diverse groups of fungi have been isolated from oil-contaminated environments and/or have been shown to degrade hydrocarbons in the laboratory. Microbial degradation is the major mechanism for the elimination of spilled oil from the environment ( Atlas, 2000.). In this study, crude oil-contaminated soil sample areas in delta state were examined with the aim of isolating fungi with high crude oil-degrading potentials.

1.1       Justification of the study     

Various studies have identified some micro-organisms to be able to degrade crude oil. The degrading ability of these microorganisms has been determined using different methods such as gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS), gas chromatography (GC), turbidometry, titrimetry e.t.c. Bio-degradation of crude oil is majorly carried out by bacteria and fungi. This study scientifically justifies the use of fungi to degrade crude oil. This project was therefore carried out to determine the degrading ability of fungi isolated from crude oil-contaminated soil samples using gas chromatography.

1.2  Objective of the study

The specific objectives of the study are to :

                               I.            Isolate and identify fungi from crude oil-contaminated soil samples.

                            II.            Screen the isolates for bio-degradative abilities.

                         III.            Assessment of the degrading abilities of the  fungi isolates by gas chromatography

 

.

Click Here To Get The Complete Project »

How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper


    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

    Click here to complete this article - How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

TESTIMONIES FROM OUR CLIENTS


Please feel free to carefully review some written and captured responses from our satisfied clients.

  • "I love what you guys are doing, your material guided me well through my research. Thank you for helping me achieve academic success."

    Sampson, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • "researchwap.com is God-sent! I got good grades in my seminar and project with the help of your service, thank you soooooo much."

    Cynthia, Akwa Ibom State University .
  • "Sorry, it was in my spam folder all along, I should have looked it up properly first. Please keep up the good work, your team is quite commited. Am grateful...I will certainly refer my friends too."

    Elizabeth, Obafemi Awolowo University
  • "Am happy the defense went well, thanks to your articles. I may not be able to express how grateful I am for all your assistance, but on my honour, I owe you guys a good number of referrals. Thank you once again."

    Ali Olanrewaju, Lagos State University.
  • "My Dear Researchwap, initially I never believed one can actually do honest business transactions with Nigerians online until i stumbled into your website. You have broken a new legacy of record as far as am concerned. Keep up the good work!"

    Willie Ekereobong, University of Port Harcourt.
  • "WOW, SO IT'S TRUE??!! I can't believe I got this quality work for just 3k...I thought it was scam ooo. I wouldn't mind if it goes for over 5k, its worth it. Thank you!"

    Theressa, Igbinedion University.
  • "I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much researchwap.com, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...."

    Joseph, Abia state Polytechnic.
  • "My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about researchwap.com, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"

    Christiana, Landmark University .
  • "I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!."

    Musa, Federal University of Technology Minna
  • "I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!."

    Ali Obafemi, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Niger State.
  • To contribute to our success story, send us a feedback or please kindly call 2348037664978.
    Then your comment and contact will be published here also with your consent.

    Thank you for choosing researchwap.com.