TRACE ELEMENTS CONTENT OF NEEM LEAVES (AZADIRACHTA INDICA).

TRACE ELEMENTS CONTENT OF NEEM LEAVES (AZADIRACHTA INDICA).

CHAPTER ONE   INTRODUCTION   

Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) is one of the very few trees known in the Indian subcontinent (Puri, 1999). This tree belonged to Meliaceae family and grows rapidly in the tropic and semi-tropic climates. It is also observed that this tree could survive in very dry and arid conditions. (Puri, 1999). The Neem Tree is an incredible plant that has been declared the Tree of the 21st century by the United Nations (Puri, 1999). In India, it is variously known as ‘Divine Tree’, ‘Life-giving tree’, ‘Nature’s Drugstore’, ‘Village Pharmacy’, and ‘Panacea for all diseases’. It is one of the major components in Ayurvedic medicine, which has been practiced in India for many centuries. Extracts from the Neem tree (Azadirachta indica A Juss) also called ‘Dogonyaro’ in Nigeria are most consistently recommended in ancient medical texts for gastrointestinal upsets, diarrhea and intestinal infections, skin ulcers, and malaria (Schmutterer, 1995).  All parts of the Neem plant such as leaves, bark, flower, fruit, seed, and root have advantages in medical treatment and industrial products. Its leaves can be used as a drug for diabetes, eczema and reduce fever. Barks of Neem can be used to make the toothbrush and the roots have the ability to heal diseases and against insects. (Puri, 1999). The seed of the Neem tree has a high concentration of oil. Neem oil is widely used as insecticides, lubricants, drugs for a variety of diseases such as diabetes and tuberculosis (Puri, 1999; Ragasa et al., 1996). India encouraged scientific investigations on neem tree as part of his program to revitalize Indian tradition and also increase commercial interest in neem (Stix, 1992) and presently some authors believe that no other plant or tree in the world has been so extensively researched or used in all possible capacities so far. In Africa, extracts from neem leaves have provided various medicinal preparations (Ekanem, 1971; Udeinya, 1993). Neem plant (Azadirachta indica) has been of great benefit to human health due to its biochemical, pharmacological, and medicinal properties.1.1       AIM OF PROJECT Many types of research have been carried out on the neem plant (Azadirachta indica) and results have shown that it has both medicinal and pharmacological properties. However, there is no documented information relating to the mineral properties inherent in the leaf of the plant. Consequently, this work was aimed at determining some minerals present in the water extract of neem leaf using the modern atomic absorption spectrophotometric analysis.  

 

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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper


    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

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