The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the leaves of Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and the seeds of Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) were screened for their antibacterial activity and phytochemical constituents. The standard methods used to detect the phytochemicals present in the extracts revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, triterpenoids, and phytosterols in all the extracts while steroids and amino acids were absent. The antibacterial evaluation of the spice extracts using agar plate-well diffusion and nutrient broth dilution techniques showed that there was no significant difference in the activity of the spice extracts (p > 0.05) against the test organisms (Streptococcus pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, clinical bacterial isolates). Ampiclox and chloramphenicol were used as a control for the test organisms to provide the approximate basis for the comparison of the activity of the extracts. The MIC and MBC were the same for all the extracts against S. pneumoniae, 6.25 mg/ml while 25 mg/ml for thyme extracts, and 50 mg/ml for nutmeg extracts against P. aeruginosa, showing the extracts to be bactericidal.

CHAPTER ONE 1.0                                 INTRODUCTION  

The spread of drug-resistant pathogens is one of the most serious threats to public health in the 21st century. Although pharmacological industries have produced a number of new antibiotics in the last three decades, resistance to these drugs by microorganisms still remains. In general, bacteria have the genetic ability to transmit and acquire resistance to drugs, which are utilized as therapeutic agents (Cohen, 1992). Such a fact is a cause for concern, because of the number of patients in hospitals who have suppressed immunity, and due to new bacterial strains that are multi-drug resistant. Consequently, new infections can occur in hospitals resulting in the high mortality as observed by Montelli and Levy (1991).

The use of herbs as first medicines is a universal phenomenon. For a long period of time, plants have been a valuable source of natural products for maintaining human health, especially in the last decade, with more intensive studies for natural therapies. Most drugs of the past were substances with a particular therapeutic action extracted from plants. Thus, medicinal plants may be defined as any plant that can be put to culinary use such as onions, foxglove, garlic, and ginger (Wainright, 2001). More and more researchers find that food and its individual constituents perform similar fashion to modern drugs and sometimes better without the dreaded side effects (Serrentino, 1991).

Plant extracts have great potential as antimicrobial compounds against microorganisms (Gisleneet al., 2000) and studies have reported that they can be used in the treatment of infectious diseases caused by resistant microbes. Thymus vulgaris (thyme) leaves andMyristicafragrans(nutmeg) seeds are plant parts that are widely used as spices for cooking especially for flavouring meats, soups, and stews. They have also been reported to have medicinal uses and possess antimicrobial abilities(Stahl-BiskupandSaez, 2002; Cho et al., 2006; Narasimhan and Dhake, 2007). 


Extracts of these spices were believed to have chemical components which are active against pathogenic microorganism. More people have continued to use these spices for a variety of culinary purposes in the absence of adequate toxicity data and a proper understanding of their medicinal properties. Folk medicine practitioners believe that these herbs are non-toxic even though there is no scientific backing to support this claim. This study intends to investigate and provide adequate on the antibacterial properties and chemical constituents of thyme and nutmeg to determine whether they are beneficial or otherwise.


Many antibiotics currently in use are either too expensive or possess undesirable side effects while some are no more effective due to bacterial resistance (Alper, 1998). Despite the remarkable progress in synthetic organic chemistry of the twentieth century, over 25% of prescribed medicines in industrialized countries are derived directly or indirectly from plants (Newman et al., 2000). Human disease management in Nigerian history also provides evidence of the relationship between plants and medicine (Ayandele and Adebiyi, 2007).

Thyme and nutmeg are spices widely employed in cooking in Nigeria. Researches have shown that both possess antibacterial capabilities but with the manner in which they are sold in market places, especially as thyme is processed and both spices are being exposed to prolonged periods of sunlight, it is important to ascertain their efficacy. In the interest of public health, what is ingested is of great concern, the amount taken in is just as crucial, and that they can help strengthen the immune system to resist deadly infections is a massive advantage.


The aim of this study is to evaluate the antibacterial activities of spices (thyme and nutmeg) especially as they serve culinary purposes. The objectives of this study are to;

i.        Determine the effect of the spice extracts against test organisms (Streptococcus pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa).

ii.       Compare the action of the aqueous and the ethanolic extracts of the spices.

iii.      Determine whether the spice extracts are bactericidal or bacteriostatic.


This study was limited to the antibacterial effect of Thymus vulgaris leaves and Myristica fragrans seeds as well as the phytochemical screening of these spices was also conducted. The determination of the chemical constituents was qualitative for alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, steroids, glycosides, triterpenoids, phytosterols, and amino acids. Their antibacterial activity was limited to the testing of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the thyme leaves and nutmeg seeds against Streptococcus pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.





Researchwap.com is an online repository for free project topics and research materials, articles and custom writing of research works. We’re an online resource centre that provides a vast database for students to access numerous research project topics and materials. Researchwap.com guides and assist Postgraduate, Undergraduate and Final Year Students with well researched and quality project topics, topic ideas, research guides and project materials. We’re reliable and trustworthy, and we really understand what is called “time factor”, that is why we’ve simplified the process so that students can get their research projects ready on time. Our platform provides more educational services, such as hiring a writer, research analysis, and software for computer science research and we also seriously adhere to a timely delivery.


Please feel free to carefully review some written and captured responses from our satisfied clients.

  • "Exceptionally outstanding. Highly recommend for all who wish to have effective and excellent project defence. Easily Accessable, Affordable, Effective and effective."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I saw this website on facebook page and I did not even bother since I was in a hurry to complete my project. But I am totally amazed that when I visited the website and saw the topic I was looking for and I decided to give a try and now I have received it within an hour after ordering the material. Am grateful guys!"

    Hilary Yusuf, United States International University Africa, Nairobi, Kenya.
  • "Researchwap.com is a website I recommend to all student and researchers within and outside the country. The web owners are doing great job and I appreciate them for that. Once again, thank you very much "researchwap.com" and God bless you and your business! ."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I love what you guys are doing, your material guided me well through my research. Thank you for helping me achieve academic success."

    Sampson, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • "researchwap.com is God-sent! I got good grades in my seminar and project with the help of your service, thank you soooooo much."

    Cynthia, Akwa Ibom State University .
  • "Great User Experience, Nice flows and Superb functionalities.The app is indeed a great tech innovation for greasing the wheels of final year, research and other pedagogical related project works. A trial would definitely convince you."

    Lamilare Valentine, Kwame Nkrumah University, Kumasi, Ghana.
  • "Sorry, it was in my spam folder all along, I should have looked it up properly first. Please keep up the good work, your team is quite commited. Am grateful...I will certainly refer my friends too."

    Elizabeth, Obafemi Awolowo University
  • "Am happy the defense went well, thanks to your articles. I may not be able to express how grateful I am for all your assistance, but on my honour, I owe you guys a good number of referrals. Thank you once again."

    Ali Olanrewaju, Lagos State University.
  • "My Dear Researchwap, initially I never believed one can actually do honest business transactions with Nigerians online until i stumbled into your website. You have broken a new legacy of record as far as am concerned. Keep up the good work!"

    Willie Ekereobong, University of Port Harcourt.
  • "WOW, SO IT'S TRUE??!! I can't believe I got this quality work for just 3k...I thought it was scam ooo. I wouldn't mind if it goes for over 5k, its worth it. Thank you!"

    Theressa, Igbinedion University.
  • "I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much researchwap.com, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...."

    Joseph, Abia state Polytechnic.
  • "My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about researchwap.com, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"

    Christiana, Landmark University .
  • "I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!."

    Musa, Federal University of Technology Minna
  • "I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!."

    Ali Obafemi, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Niger State.
  • To contribute to our success story, send us a feedback or please kindly call 2348037664978.
    Then your comment and contact will be published here also with your consent.

    Thank you for choosing researchwap.com.