PRODUCTION OF BIODEGRADABLE PLASTIC FILMS FROM CASSAVA STARCH USED IN FOOD PACKAGING, USING VARIOUS ADDITIVES AND PLASTICIZERS

PRODUCTION OF BIODEGRADABLE PLASTIC FILMS FROM CASSAVA STARCH USED IN FOOD PACKAGING, USING VARIOUS ADDITIVES AND PLASTICIZERS

 CHAPTER ONE

1.1   Background study    

Packagingvusing plasticvmaterialsvhas rapidly increasedvin recent times. Its use covers a wide area of application from automobile parts, food, drinks, water, snacks, clothes, fresh and seafood, farm products, vmedicals and pharmaceuticals, to mention but a few. The use of such bombastic amount of schematic plastics and its advantage over other packaging materials is due to to its diverse and advance properties of longevity. The properties include resistance to a chemical reaction, thermal strength, mechanical and its tensile strength, especially enzymatic reactions (Ezeoha and Ezenwanne, 2013.).

     For example, it will take a very long time say a hundred years to degrade just a piece of plastic film (polyethene) used to package snacks (gala) at standard environmental conditions. basically, two challenges have been cited with the conventional polyethene use its dependence on petroleum and the problem of waste disposal.  Most of today’s conventional synthetic polymers vare produced from petrochemicals that are not biodegradable.  Thesevstable polymers are a  significant source of environmental pollution, harming organic nature when they are dispersed in the environment, changes the carbon dioxide cycle, the problem associated with increased toxic emission. The sources of synthetic polymers such as fossil-fuel and gas are now stimulated by environmental concerns. Scientists are researching different methods of improving plastics that can be used more efficiently such that they could be recycled, reused and to possibly degrade after use.

      Alternationvisvtowardsvgreenervagriculturalvsources,   which also would lead to a reduction of CO2 emissions (Narayan, 2001). According to the Biodegradable    ProductsvInstitutev (BPI), biodegradable plastics is one in which degradation results from the action of naturally occurring micro-organisms such as bacteria, fungi or algae. Degradablevplastics are classified byvAmericanvSociety for testing and Materials    (ASTM) into four these are:-

(1) Photodegradablevplastics: Degradation of the plastic results from natural daylight.            

 (2) Oxidativevdegradable plastics: A degradation of plastics as a result of oxidation.

(3) hydrolytically degradable plastics: - The degradability results from hydrolysis, and

 (4) BiodegradablevPlastics: - Degradablevplastics in which there is a breakdown of long-chain polymer molecule into smaller or shorter lengths. It undergoes oxidation which is triggered by heat, ultraviolet light (UV light), and mechanical stress. Itvoccurs in the presence of moisture and actions from naturallyvoccurringvmicroorganismsvsuch asvbacterial, fungi and algae. (ASTM Standards, 1998)

             Thevvariousvdegradablevplastics definitions classified above offers the onlyvproducts whichvarevnaturallyvdegradable. Starch isvbeenvdiscoveredvamongst all biopolymers as a high potentialvmaterial for biodegrablevfilms. Starchvconsists of two types of polysaccharides, amylose and amylopectinvdepending on the sucrose (10-20%) amylase and (80-90%) amylopectin. The hydrophlicity ofvstarch canvbe used tovincrease the biodegrability of starch-basedvplastics. Amylosevis avlinearvmolecule with a fewvbranches, whereasvamylopectinvis avhighlyvbranchedvmolecule. Therefore, vamylosevcontentvis an importantvfactor to biodegrable plastic filmvstrength. Branchedvstructure of amylopectin generallyvleads to filmvwith lowvmechanical properties. To improve thevflexibilityvof plastics, plasticizers arevadded tovreduce internalvhydrogen bondvbetweenvpolymer chainsvwhile increasing molecular space. The mostvcommonly used starchvplasticizers are polyols, sorbitol and glycerol. Thevkey emphasisvin biodegrability is thatvbiopolymer materialsvbreakdownvintovsmaller compounds, either chemically or byvorganisms sooner than synthetic plastics (Bastioli, 2005.). Biodegradablevpackagingvmaterials are materials that degrade back tovthe earth surfacevharmlessly when disposed of. This help largely in reducingvthe amount of packaging materialsvthat goes back into landfills andvfurthermore, saves energy, as the biodegrable route requires little or novexternal source of energy its endothermic.

 Biodegrable polymervsources are fromvreplaceable agriculturalvfeed socks, vanimal sources, vmarinevfoodvprocessingvindustriesvwaste, or microbial sources. In addition to replenshiable raw agricultural ingredients, biodegrable materials breakdownvinto environmental friendlyvproducts such; as carbon dioxide, vwater and quality compost. 

      Biodegradationvtakesvplace in two-steps: vdegradation/defragmentationvinitiated by heat, moisture, or microbial enzymes, andvsecond step – biodegradation – where the shorter carbonvchains passvthrough the cellvwalls of the microbesvand are used as anvenergy source. Biodegrable plastics are made from cellulose-based starchvand has been in existence for decades, with first exhibitionvof a cellulose-basedvstarch (which initiated thevbiodegradable plasticvindustry in 1862). Cellophanevisvthevmost cellulose-basedvbiopolymer. vStarch-based biopolymer, which swellvandvdeformvwhen exposedvtovmoisture, include amylose, hydroxyalka note (PHA), polyhydroxy butyrate (PHB), and a copolymer of PhB and valeric acid (PhB/V). These are made from lactic acid formed fromvmicrobial fermentation of starch derivatives, polylactide does not degrade when exposed tovmoisture (Auras.et al, 2007) PHA, PHB, andvPHB/V are formedvby bacterial actionsvonvstarch (Krochta, 1997). In addition, biodegrable films can also bevproduce from chitosan, vwhich isvderivedvfromvchitin of crustacean and insectvexoskeletons. Chitin is a biopolymer similar to cellulose structure. Therevare variousvwaysvstarchvcan be used for biodegrable polymervproduction; 

Starchvcompostvcontainingvmore than half by mass of the plasticizers.  Biodegradable polymers preparation using the extrusion process of mixtures of granular starch.  Composition of starch with other plastics of little quantity of agricultural-based material to enhance the biodegradability of conventional synthetic polymer.

               Synthetic polymers can also be made partially degradable by blending with biopolymers, incorporating biodegradable components such as starch, or by adding bioactive compounds. vThe bio compoundsvare degradedvto break thevpolymervinto smaller chains. Bioactive compounds work through diverse mechanisms. For example, they may be mixed with swelling agents to increase the molecular structure of the plastic which upon exposure to moisture allow the bioactive compounds to breakdown the plastics.

  1.2 Problem statement

      There is basically, two harms connected to the wide application of synthetic polymer plastics for packaging since its invention in the 1930s: They are total reliance on the petrochemical product as its main feedstock and the problem of waste disposal. Most of today’s conventional synthetic polymers are produced from petrochemicals and are not biodegradable. Thesevstable polymers are avsignificant source ofvenvironmentalvpollution, harmfulvtovorganicvnaturevwhen they are dispersed in the environment. The raw materials such as fossil fuel and gas could be replaced by greener agricultural sources, which contribute to the reduction of Co2vemissions (Narayan, 2001). Based on the above it becomes of value to produce plastics that are biodegradable, in excess of the past few years synthetic polymer users have been introducing various forms of biodegradable plastics. Thevalternative rawvmaterialsvare nowvfrom plants products, the main amongvmanyvothers is cornvstarch.

1.3Justification

     Biovplasticsvwere too expensive for considerationvof replacementvfor petroleumvbased plastics. The lowervtemperature needed for the production of bioplastics and the more stable supply of biomass combined withvthevincreasing cost of crude oil make bioplastics prices morevcompetitivevwithvregular plastics. Starch is inexpensive and abundance in nature, Nigeriavbeing the world largest producer of cassava (FAO, 2009) and is a root crop that can be grown in every part of the nation, Starchvis totally biodegradable in a wide range of environments and can be used in the development of biodegradable packaging products for various market uses. Incineration of starch product is a way of recycling, the atmosphericvCO2 trapped by the starch-producing plant during growth, thus closing the biological carbon cycle (Ceredavet al).

1.4  Aimvandvobjectives

     The aim of this research is to produce biodegradable plastic films from cassava starch used in food packaging, using various additives and plasticizers. This will be achieved via the following objectives.

Extraction of starch from fresh cassava. Improving the extracted starch with the addition of plasticizers and various additives,  Determining the biodegradability and tensile strength of the produced biodegradable products and comparing with that of synthetic polyethene.  Testing for the validity of the produced biodegradable film.

1.5 Scope of the study

The scope of theses work is strictly limited to:

                               I.            Extraction of starch from cassava.

                            II.            Physical and chemical properties of plasticizers and additives in resumption.

                            III.             Cost estimation.

                         IV.            Biodegrability test, and the characterization of the produced film.

.

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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper


    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

    Click here to complete this article - How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

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